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20 Cards in this Set

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1. Describe (2-3 pages) the semantic, syntactic/morphologic, and pragmatic development of a preschool child
SEMANTIC
I. Semantic
A. LEXICON
1. 1½-6 years: approximately 5 words added to lexicon every day
2. fast-mapping likely employed
a. connection between a word and its referent is inferred after only one exposure with no direct teaching by adults
b. 2 steps: tentative definition upon first exposure; refined definition upon subsequent exposures
B. EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY
1. 3-year-olds: 900 to 1000 words
2. 4-year-olds: 1500 to 1600 words
3. 5-year-olds: 2200 words
a. understands temporal words (e.g., yesterday, tomorrow, before, after)
C. NOUNS
1. Can describe in terms of:
a. physical properties (size, shape, color)
b. functional properties
c. locational properties
D. VERBS
1. may be learned based on morphological endings:
a. –ing may indicate action
b. –ed may indicate a result
2. Can explain:
a. Who/what performs an action
b. Whom/what is acted upon
c. When, where and with what the action is performed
3. Cannot:
a. explain why or how an action is performed
b. give a description of the process
1. Describe (2-3 pages) the semantic, syntactic/morphologic, and pragmatic development of a preschool child
SYNTACTIC/MORPHOLOGIC
Syntactic/Morphologic
• Three-year-olds
• use simple sentences and frequently omit small, unstressed words.
• Most sentences are subject-verb-object.
• few variations of adult negative, interrogative, and imperative forms.
• can use some noun modifiers and articles, plurals of some nouns, and possessive –‘s.
• Overgeneralization of the past tense –ed is usually used by three-year-olds in words like goed and eated.
• Four-year olds:
• average sentence is four or five words
• good use of declarative, negative, interrogative, and imperative forms.


• Occasionally use conjunctions to produce longer sentences.
• many sentences begin with and or use and to produce run on sentences during storytelling.
• use many regular and irregular past-tense verbs correctly
• Use the third person singular, present tense –s (Mommy eats).
• Five-year olds:
• acquired about 80 percent of the syntactic structures that he or she will use as an adult, making him/her an improved storyteller.
• uses regular and irregular past tenses of common verbs correctly but still has difficulty with the past tense of the verb to be.
• limited use of
• the comparative (more…than or –er)
• possessive –‘s and possessive pronouns
• conjunctions
• relative pronouns for embedded clauses (I know who lives next door)
• gerunds (We go fishing)
• and infinitives
1. Describe (2-3 pages) the semantic, syntactic/morphologic, and pragmatic development of a preschool child
PRAGMATIC
GENERAL
A. General skills
1. Acquires many conversational skills
2. Much of their conversation concerns the here and now
3. The mother is the primary conversational partner, and she has a major influence on language learning.
a. She controls the conversations and creates and maintains a semblance of a true dialog; this conversational asymmetry continues throughout all the preschool years
b. Use of conversational routines and formats provide scaffolding that frees cognitive processing so that the child can engage in more linguistic exploration and experimentation.
i. This allows the child to discuss nonpresent referents (18-24 mos)
c. When the mother discusses past or future events, she relies on their shared knowledge of known, routinized, or scripted events. This event knowledge is the topic over 50% of the time.
1. Describe (2-3 pages) the semantic, syntactic/morphologic, and pragmatic development of a preschool child
PRAGMATIC
GENERAL
2-3 & 3
A. 2-3-year-olds
1. HEY: use attention getting words such as “hey”
2. GIMME: Beginning to state their needs with forms such as “gimme” and “I want.”
3. CONTROL/REGULATE: language is primarily to control & regulate the behavior of others.
4. NARRATIVES: Tell self-generated, fictional narratives.
5. REPETITION: Use repetition as their main device for maintaining a topic and repairing conversational breakdowns.
B. 3-year-olds
1. RELEVANCE-75%: Their utterances are relevant to the previous topic 75% of the time (2-year-olds’ utterances are only relevant 20% of the time).
2. YEAH/UH-HUH: Beginning to use conventional verbal acknowledgements such as, “yeah” or “uh-huh” to maintain a conversation
1. Describe (2-3 pages) the semantic, syntactic/morphologic, and pragmatic development of a preschool child
PRAGMATIC
GENERAL
4, 5, 6
C. 4-year-olds MILCS
1. MONOLOGUES: or self-conversations (20-30% of all utterances)
a. Monologues may occur presleep and are rich with:
i. songs, sounds, and nonsense words
ii. bits of chitchat, verbal fantasies, and expressions of feelings
b. Gradually, the child’s monologues become more social by first engaging in self-conversations with others nearby, then later sharing a topic with a listener.
2. INDIRECT REQUESTS: though majority of requests are still direct.
3. LEAP-FROG: narratives child links two or more past events in a causal sequence emerge
4. CHAIN: Narratives are “chain” with some plot, but no high point and resolution.
5. STORIES/ROLE PLAY: able to tell simple stories and role-play
D. 5-year-olds 12 MIFPPP
1. 12 TURNS: 50% of 5 -year-olds can sustain topics for approximately 12 turns.
2. MOTHERESE: Shift into “motherese” when speaking to younger children
3. INDIRECT REQUESTS: Able to respond correctly to indirect requests.
4. FEELINGS/EMOTIONS: Use language to express feelings and emotions more than younger children.
5. PRESUPPOSITION: Able to determine the amount of information the listener needs and can adjust their responses based on what the listener needs to know.
6. PERSONALITY: Personality is better defined and they are more openly social
7. POLITE FORMS: adept at selecting the most appropriate, polite forms to use with a listener given their age, status, and background.
E. Between 5 and 6 years:
1. CHAIN-REAL WORLD: Emergence of focused chain narratives which include a chronological order that reflects that of the real world
2. Describe (1 page) how the English language skills of a native Spanish speaking second grader who is acquiring English as a second language might differ from those of a native English speaking child of the same age. Assume the Spanish speaking child has only been exposed to English for two years
GENERAL AND PRAGMATIC
Considered a sequential bilingual because second language (English) acquired after the age of three
o Interference errors that are the result of the influence of the first language on the second language
o May experience a period of language regression and temporary silence as they transition to the second language
E. Pragmatic differences: EPIC+BICS+CALP
1. EYE CONTACT: Display indirect eye contact which is a sign of attentiveness or respect in Spanish culture.
2. PROXEMICS: Might stand closer to and might touch his/her conversation partner
3. INTERRUPTION: Interruptions during conversations are permissible
4. CODE SWITCHING: Likely demonstrate some code-switching or code-mixing behavior
5. BICS: Should have acquired Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills for English. BICS includes measurable skills of pronunciation, basic vocab, and grammar.
6. CALP: Takes 5 to 7 years to acquire Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) which is the semantic and pragmatic aspects of language. CALP is common to all languages and can transfer from one to another.
2. Describe (1 page) how the English language skills of a native Spanish speaking second grader who is acquiring English as a second language might differ from those of a native English speaking child of the same age. Assume the Spanish speaking child has only been exposed to English for two years
OTHER LANG. COMPONENTS
A. Phonological differences:
1. SOUND SUBS: the child may have substitutions that a native English speaking child of the same age would not have such as:
• /z//s/
• /v//b/
2. VOWEL ADDS: May add a vowel to consonant cluster like /esp/ for /sp/
3. FINAL CONSONANTS: Difficulty with producing final consonants because there are only five final consonants in Spanish
B. Morphological differences:
1. POSSESSIVE “OF THE”: Express possession by using of the instead of possessive ‘s (e.g., The car of the boy.)
2. MODIFIER: Modifier replaces the comparatives –er and more
3. NO FOR NEG: use of no for other negatives such as don’t and can’t
C. Syntactical differences:
1. INVERT ADJ: Put the adjective after the noun (e.g., The house red.)
2. INVERT NEG: Invert the order of the negative and the verb (e.g., He not can play.)
3. OMIT SUB PRONOUNS: Omit subject pronouns when the subject has already been specified (e.g., He Flew back.)
4. OMIT AUX: Omit the auxiliary verb in a sentence (e.g., He is going.)
5. BEHAVE: Use have instead of be
D. Semantic differences:
1. SOCIAL VS. ACADEMIC VOCABULARY: Successful in basic vocabulary, but may have difficulty with academic language needed for more formal situations and writing
2. NATIVE CLASSES OF WORDS: Have classes of words that he/she only knows in his/her native language.
• Especially true of words for activities and objects in the home where Spanish may be the only language spoken
3a. Describe (1 page) the receptive and expressive language difficulties that might be displayed by a child with Specific Language Impairment
• SLIsignificant speech and language deficits that cannot be attributed to sensory (e.g. hearing impairment), motor (e.g. cerebral palsy), cognitive (e.g. mental retardation), social-emotional (e.g. autism or behavioral-emotional disturbances), or environmental factors (abuse).
• Different subtypes depending on whether the delay is in:
• Language comprehension (receptive)
• Language production (expressive)
• Both comprehension and production.

• Semantic/Lexical Deficits:
• Reduced vocabulary size ( e.g. a typical developing 2 year old has a vocabulary size of 200-300 words where a 2 year old with SLI has a repertoire of about 20 words.)
• Difficulty in learning novel words when compared to typical developing children.
• Difficulty with the repetition of nonwords as compared to vocabulary matched peers especially when words were 3-4 syllables long
• This suggests deficits in phonological memory

• Syntactic Deficits:
• Slower rate of acquisition compared to typical age matched children
• More problems with morphological inflections:
• third person singular –s
• past tense –ed
• copula is and are
• auxiliary is, do, does
• possessive –s
• articles a and the.
• Pragmatic
• Less communicatively interactive when compared to peers, but comparable to younger, language-matched children.
• Narratives
• shorter in size
• fewer complete episodes and story grammar units
• less cohesion adequacy
• fewer syntactically complex sentences and elaborated phrases
• more grammatical errors and maze behaviors
Hard time following directions
3b. Describe (1 page) the receptive and expressive language difficulties that might be displayed by a child with autism or PDD. Please specify which disorder you are addressing
• Autismdisorder that emerges in early childhood and represents a spectrum of difficulties in socialization, communication and behavior.
• Need at least two symptoms in the area of social interaction impairments
• At least one symptom in the area of receptive and stereotyped behavior.
• And at least one symptom in the area of communication impairments, i.e.,
1. Delay or absence of spoken language not accompanied by an attempt to compensate with other forms of communication.
2. Marked impairment in the ability to initiate and sustain conversation
3. Stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language
4. Lack of varied and appropriate imitative or pretend play.

• Semantic Deficits:
• use of restricted range of relational categories
• difficulty with the acquisition and organization of certain semantic concepts
• more limited and restricted use of vocabulary
• difficulty with understanding figurative and implied meaning
• smaller number of words within word classes, although they have similar distribution of word classes as typically developing children
• neologistic errors
• use of idiosyncratic words and phrases

• Morpho-syntactic Deficits
• frequent omissions of morphological inflections
• slower developmental increase in MLU
• increases sometimes plateau at a certain stage of development
• differing order of morpheme acquisition
• limited variety of syntactic constructions and less complex constructions

• Pragmatic Deficits:
• socially inappropriate responses to questions (linguistically)
• inappropriate use of deitic terms (here-there, this-that)
• difficulty with maintaining conversations, monitoring listener needs, and adapting to the listener's perspective.
4. Describe at least three test modifications that could be implemented with a child whose first language is Spanish to determine whether the morphologic/syntactic errors could be attributed to a language disorder or a language difference.
MD-OIL
1) MODIFY TEST: Modify the test administration (invalidates standardized scores)
a. reword or expand instructions and provide additional examples
b. give additional time to respond
c. record all responses
2) DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT: pretest, teach, and retest
3) OBJECTS VS. PIX: Use actual objects or items instead of pictures. Pictures are more abstract and are more difficult for second language learners to process.
4) INFORMAL ANALYSIS: Informally analyze the child’s morphologic/syntactic productions according to characteristics of Spanish-influenced English.
5) L1 & L2: Test in Spanish and in English. Essential before a diagnosis of a language disorder can be made.
4a. Describe in 1-2 paragraphs the types of questions that you might ask this parent to obtain information beyond that already stated above from your parent interview along with a rationale for obtaining this information
Questions relevant to any case study:
• Obtain a complete case history
• Discuss onset, duration, progression and any changes over time
Questions specific to this case study:
• Is she exposed to any other languages inside or outside the home, including foreign language classes? If so, what percentage of the time for each language, and when did exposure begin?
• Did the child meet developmental milestones for motor skills (rolling over, sitting up, crawling, walking)?
• Did the child meet developmental milestones for language (first words, combining two words, rhyming, etc.)
• Ask mother to define “grammatically correct” and provide specific examples. Is she putting words in the wrong order? Is she using incorrect morphology? (i.e., are the errors morphological or syntactical, and are they age-appropriate?)
• Has her hearing acuity been checked recently?
• In terms of “following directions,” at what level does the communication breakdown occur (1-step commands? 2-step? 3-step?)
• Discuss “vocabulary concerns.” Is her daughter using inappropriate vocabulary? Not enough vocabulary? Ask for examples.
• Ask for an example of her daughter not staying on topic. How often does it happen?
• What does her teacher report? What areas of her academic performance are being affected?
• What kinds of therapy has the child previously received? How much and for how long? What were the goals? Was any progress made?
• Do her peers notice a difference in her language abilities?
4b. Indicate the standardized test instruments that you might select and your rationale for your selection
• CELF-4 Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals: (ages 5+)
• To take an in depth look at receptive language and expressive language that includes sentence structure, word structure, expressive vocabulary, concepts and following directions, recalling sentences, basic concepts, and receptive and expressive word classes.

• CELF Preschool (ages below 5)

• Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language-Revised--TACL-R (ages 3:0-9:11)
• analysis of the child’s receptive language skills and auditory comprehension
• designed to assesses word classes, grammatical morphemes, and elaborated sentences (syntax)

• EOWPVT – Expressive one word picture vocabulary test
• To focus on the child’s expressive vocab

• ROWPVT - Receptive one word picture vocabulary test
• To focus on the child’s receptive vocab

• WIIG – WIIG Assessment of Basic Concepts
• To assess basic concepts such as size, location, color, quantity, emotional states

• SPELT – Structure Photographic Expressive Language Test
• To focus on the child’s grammar
4c. Describe informal assessment procedures that you might use to assess the oral and written (if applicable) language skills of this child
Preschool
• Language Sample
o Collect play-based language sample in the clinic
• Written Sample
o None
• Observation:
o If possible, observe on the playground

School-age
• Language Sample: use natural settings to get most realistic sample
o Collect a variety of language samples,
o Variety assesses:
 how she alters her communication style for different partners
 topic maintenance skills
• Written Sample
o Request sample of schoolwork
• Observation

Adolescent
• Language Sample
• Written Sample
o Collect sample in the clinic
o Request sample of schoolwork
4d. Describe what types of language analysis procedures you would use to analyze and interpret the results from your informal analyses of oral and written language (e.g., semantic category analysis, type-token ratio, c-unit, MLU, pragmatic analysis) and what types of patterns you would expect to find
Preschool
• Syntax
o MLU
• Semantics
o I would give the parent a vocabulary list to analyze
• Pragmatics
o Dore’s Primitive Speech Acts –OR–
 appropriate for child at one-word and early two-word stages
o Shipley’s Assessment of Pragmatic Skills

School-age
• Morphology/Syntax
o LSAT
 appropriate for clients who are producing a significant number of utterances containing at least three morphemes
• Semantic Diversity
o type-token ratio (TTR) (norms from age 3 to 8)
 Expected results:
• ratios below 0.45 due to mother’s concern re: vocabulary
• lower number of total words
• lower number of different words
• Pragmatics
o Shipley’s Assessment of Pragmatic Skills

Adolescent
• Morphology/Syntax
o LSAT –OR–
o number of words/C-unit (for ages 4 – 6 and grades 6 – 12) –OR–
o number of words/T-unit (for grades 3 – 4)
• Pragmatics
o Shipley’s Assessment of Pragmatic Skills
You have been asked to evaluate the speech and language skills of a 7-year old student who is a Standard American English speaker. The mother reports that when the child was born, she was born via C-section and only weighed 4 pounds at birth. She stated that, at this point in her development, her daughter’s spoken sentences are fairly long (6 or more words, on the average) but that her sentences are not always “grammatically correct.” She also indicates that she is fairly good at following directions but does not always get them correct. She is also concerned about her daughter’s vocabulary skills. In addition, she feels that her daughter’s conversation is not always on topic. She is not yet capable of writing full complete sentences. Her difficulties are impacting on her academic performance in the classroom. The child has received previous therapy services through district-based preschool and kindergarten/first grade language based classroom programs in another school district. You have not yet received a copy of the child’s most recent IEP or speech/language diagnostic report.
case study
4e. Write three goals and one objective for each goal for this child
Goal I: To improve semantic abilities
Objective: By mm/dd/yy, child will state labels of 100 pictures/objects of clothing, toys, and transportation with 80% accuracy across 3 consecutive sessions in the therapy room setting as measured by the clinician.

Goal II: To improve expressive language
Objective: By mm/dd/yy, child will produce a sentence with the appropriate subject pronoun in response to a clinician question with 80% accuracy across 3 consecutive sessions in the therapy room setting as measured by the clinician.

Goal III: To improve receptive language
Objective: By mm/dd/yy, child will follow three-step commands spoken to her by the clinician with 80% accuracy across 3 consecutive sessions in the therapy room setting as measured by the clinician.

Goal IV: To maintain focus during verbal communication
Objective: By mm/dd/yy, child will visually attend to the clinician during 4 out of 5 communication turns between the client and clinician with minimal verbal cues from the clinician across 3 consecutive sessions in the therapy room setting as measured by the clinician.

Goal V: To improve topic maintenance
Objective: By mm/dd/yy, child will maintain a topic of conversation with the clinician through 3 communicative turns in 4 out of 5 opportunities across 3 consecutive sessions in the therapy room setting as measured by the clinician.
4f. State at least one intervention approach that might be used successfully with this child and discuss how you would implement it
CLINICIAN AND CHILD CENTERED
Clinician Directed Approach
• Clinician is directing therapy
• Involves structured activities that help maximize the opportunities that a child has to produce a targeted form thus giving them more opportunity for practice
• May be good for those children who can not learn language naturally

Child Centered Language Approach
• Common technique is scaffolding
• The child initiates and the adult making scaffolding decisions based on the nature of the child’s errors
4f. State at least one intervention approach that might be used successfully with this child and discuss how you would implement it
HYBRID
Hybrid Approach
• a mid point between clinician-directed and client-centered therapies.
• use intervention activities that are highly natural, but the clinician maintains control over the therapy environment to maximize learning and generalization.
• Different types of hybrid instruction.
• Sabotage events
• Violate routine events, withhold objects, or hide objects to initiate conversation

• Focused Stimulationset up activity like reading a story or playing, provide several models of target verbal behavior.

• Milieu teachingmodification of the child-oriented approach—follow the child’s lead in activities and social routines.
• Arrange the environment to create opportunities for communication.

• Script therapyis an approach in which target behaviors are taught within the context of a familiar routine or script.
4g. Briefly describe (1-2 paragraphs) research findings that would support your choice of the above mentioned intervention approach
Clinician Directed Approach
• Friedman & Friedman (1980) as cited in Paul (2007)
• Their study showed that while children with higher IQs learned better in a more interactive intervention program, those with lower IQs or more severe disabilities performed better when a CD approach was used

Child Centered Language Approach
• Norris and Hoffman (1990)
• Compared the effectiveness of language treatment using adult-initiated vs. child-initiated interaction styles
• The adult-initiated approach produced a change in the behaviors exhibited by the subjects but the child initiated approach resulted in an overall higher frequency of communicative behavior

Hybrid Approach
• Kaiser & Hester (1994)
• utilized a hybrid naturalistic strategy incorporating key aspects of milieu teaching (e.g., environmental arrangement and incidental teaching) with a responsive conversational style of modeling
• was successful at teaching individualized language targets to six different children
4g. Briefly describe (1-2 paragraphs) research findings that would support your choice of the above

MORE
• Fey (1986)
• Activities are highly natural, incorporate procedures to maximize speed, durability, and generalization of language learning.
• Can be used throughout the day by parents and teachers without disrupting daily routines
• Can be used in-group settings or in classroom
• Hypothesize more complete learning and generalization of target forms will occur than in more commonly used clinician-directed therapy because they are implemented in everyday contexts