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52 Cards in this Set

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Define Communication
the sending and receiving of information, ideas, feelings or messages
Define Language
a system of abstract symbols and rule-governed structures, the specific conventions of which are learned...receptive (understanding) vs expressive (vocal/nonvocal)
Define Speech
the oral expression of language (speech sounds)
Define Linguistics
the study of language
Define Polyglot
ability to speak/understand multiple languages
There are __ - __ languages in the world
6000-8000
dialect refers to...
a regional variation of a language
there are __ languages indiginous to canada
53
Define Morphology
the study of WORD structure ( -ing, -s, -ed, etc)
Define Syntax
Looks at SENTENCE structure (noun phrases, verb phrases, negative questions, declaratives, complex sentences, etc)
Define Semantics
The study of the meaning within language (culturally sensitive)
Pragmatics
the study of how language is used (ex: being sarcastic, eye contact, etc)
Grammar
Rules we've created to govern language
Who developed the theory of transformational grammar?
Chomsky
Who developed the socail interactionist theory?
Jean Burko Gleeson
Define scaffolding
kids learn from learnign the things prior to them... give them help with a task just beyond their abilities and then remove that help to build skills
What are the 3 main areas of language?
1) form
2) content
3) use
Define
1) form
2) content
3) use
form = morphology, syntax, phonology

content = semantics

use = pragmatics
Collecting Language samples...

What do the following symbols mean?

/
>
^
x
z
/ is used between bound morphemes

> means an abandoned utterance

^ means an interrupted
utterance

x is used when a word is unintelligible

use z for possessive instead of s (ex: Johnny/z hat)
how do you calculate MLU?
total # morphemes
_______________________

total # of utternances
pre-intentional vs intentional communication
pre-intentional --> ex: a baby crying when they're born...its a reflex

intentional --> not just a reflex, the child initiates it intentionally
Sound discrimination
* at 6 months
* at 1 year
By 6 months, an infant can discriminate between many sounds and by the end of the first year, his discrimination skills are already becomeing more focused on the speech sounds of his native language
Remembering Sound Sequences
* at 1 month
* at 4 months
* infants as young as 1 month can remeber an object if it reappears within 2.5 seconds
* by 4 months, he can remember it 5-7 seconds later (represents the beginning of short term memory essential for processing speech and language)
What are some characteristics of babytalk/motherese?
* higher pitched
* more pitch extremes
* more regular rhythms
* reference to objects the child can see/hear
* more pauses b/w (between) segments
* slower rate
* shorter utterances
What is joint reference?
focusing on teh same thing together...an early goal that needs to be there for language to develop
Stages of Babbling...
* 0-1 month
* 1-4 months
* 4-6 months
* 6-8 months
* 8-12 months
0-1 > reflexive cries and vegetative sounds

1-4 > cooing (vowel-like) and differentiated crying

4-6 > single syllable productions of v/c-like sounds

6-8 > 'true babbling' or reduplicated babbling (ex: bababa)

8-12 > echolalia (repeating back) variegated babbling (intonational changes) and vocables and protowords that are unique to the child
Children use language to...
greet, protest, reject, label, answer, comment, direct attention, practice, request an action, gain attention (calling) repeat/imitate, social intactions, etc
MLU's for each stage
early 1 -> 1 - 1.5
late 1 -> 1.5 - 2
stage 2 -> 2 - 2.5
stage 3 -> 2.5 - 3
stage 4 -> 3 - 3.75
stage 5 -> 3.75 - 4.5
Ages for each stage
Early 1 -> 12-22 m
Late 1 -> 22-26 m
Stage 2 -> 27-30 m
Stage 3 -> 31-34 m
Stage 4 -> 35-40 m
Stage 5 -> 41-46 m
Key Characteristics of Early Stage 1
MLU = 1-1.5
Age = 12-22 m

* uses words that mean the most to them in their world
* usually 1 syllable, 2 syllable, or 1 syllable repeated
* first words are usually CV, VC, or CVCV
* most first words include consonants produced at front of mouth like m,b,w
Key characteristics of Late stage 1
MLU 1.5-2
age 22-26 months

* 2 word productions
* with 50 words, the child starts putting 2 words together, which represents the beginning of syntax
* able to make declarative statements ('daddy go') and express negation ('no nite-nite)
Key Characteristics of Stage 2
MLU = 2-2.5, age 27-30m
* children acquire different langauge forms
* begin to modify meanings w/in sentences (ex: use inflection, present progressive, regular past tense, irregular past tense)
* overextension and overgeneralization (all animals are dogs)
* use negation more frequently (including not, can't , don't) and interrogatives (questions - including yes/no and wh-questions)
* pronouns and auxilliary verbs
* produce a category of auxilliary verbs called 'semi-auxiliary' verbs such as hafta, gonna, and wanna
* Semantic Dvp (developement) = expressive langauge is 400 words, learns 9 words a day from 18m to 9 years, uses the word please, and uses conversational repair which means correcting mistakes)
Key Characteristics of Stage 3
MLU=2.5-3, Age 31-34 months

* more advanced, adult-like negation interrogative and even imperative sentences
* by end of stage 3, child knows each sentence must have a verb adn a predicate (part of sentence excluding subject)
* brown's gramatical morphemes continue to dvp
* more consistent use of personal pronouns such as 'your, yours, he, she and we' and demonstrative pronouns 'this, that, these, those' as well as artices 'a, and, the'
* among the modifiers, the child uses a few quantifiers, including 'two' 'wome' and 'a lot'
*common adjectives like big, little , good , bad
* elaborating noun phrases ex: big doggy
* producing verb phrases that include auxiliary verbes such as can, do, will and the verb 'to be' (ex: I am going)
* topic collaboration emerges (being on same topic as conversational partner)
Key characteristics of Stage 4
MLU 3-3.75, age 35-40m
* embedding begins (combining 2 or more clauses into one clause)
* 4 types of phrases (prepositional, participal infinitive and gerund)don't all come in by end of stage 4
* 3 types of embedded clauses (object compliment, wh-questions, and relative)
* modifiers like 'some, something, other, more , another'
* understands a sentence must have a noun or pronoun as a subject
* past tense forms of common modals (could, should, would)
* by end of stage 4, child will have added the following negative contractions: didn't, doesn't, isn't and aren't
* Consistently using wh-questions, even 'when'
Differentiate between the following phrases...
* prepositional
* participle
* infinitive
* gerund
• prepositional = contains preposition (in, on) together with an object of the preposition and accompanying modifiers and articles ex: adding ‘under the car’ to the end of a sentence
• participle = contains participle and functions as an adjective (particeple = verb that functions as adjevive like pickled egg), so an exambple would be ‘the woman calling my name is Aunt Bertha’ where ‘calling my name’ functions as the adjective calling aunt B
• infinitive = an infinitive is a verb form introduced by the word ‘to’…ex: my daddy wants to go to the store
• gerund = a gerund is when a verb ending in ing functions as a noun ; ex: ‘Compulsive eating is bad’- compulsive eating is the gerund phrase
3 types of embedded clauses
* object compliment clause
* wh-question clause
* relative clause
• object compliment clause – independent clause containing a verb such as think, hope, know, guess, etc floowed by a noun phrase that functions as an object (ex: ‘I think you know what I mean’) – the subordinate clause (you know what I mean) functions as the object of the verb think
• wh- questions clause – ‘show me where can I get one’ instead of ‘show me where I can get one’
• relative clause – starts with who, whom, whomever, whose, which or that and modifies the preceding noun ‘he is the one who threw the ball’ (not used until stage 5)
Key Characteristics of Stage 5
MLU 3.75-4.5 Age 41-46m

* only 9 of the 14 grammatical morphemes are mastered by end of stage 5
* comparative ('bigger') and superlative ('biggest') forms
(superlative comes in first)
* tag questions emerge (ex: I'm going to the store, ok?)
* clausal conjoing really begins
* conjunction 'AND'
* narrative discourse begins (most common form is telling stories
* protonarratives begin around 2-3.5...these are primitive stories about something thats happened to the child
Define
* pronoun
* subjective pronoun
* reflexive pronoun
* demonstrative pronoun
* pronoun = word used in place of a noun
* subjective pronoun = the subject of a sentence (I, she, he and they)
* objective pronoun = the object of the sentence (me, her, him and them)
* possessive pronouns = his, hers, their and our
* reflexive pronouns = myself, yourself, themselves
* demonstrative pronouns = this, that, these and those
Define:
- auxiliary verb
- primary and secondary auxiliary verb
- semi auxiliary verb
- auxiliary verb = a helping verb (comes with another verb, such as 'I am going'
- primary auxiliary verbs (have and do) and secondary auxiliary verbs (can, shall, may and will) that are also called modals
- semi-auxiliary verbs = verb forms such as hafta, gonna, wanna
Define
* phrase
- noun phrase vs verb phrase
* clauses
* phrase = combination of words that are related to one another and the combo serves a grammatical purpose, but the phrase does NOT contain a subject and predicate

- noun phrase = contains noun and words that describe/modify the noun
- verb phrase = contains a verb and maybe some other supporting or qualifying words

* clause = collection of related words wit both a subject and a predicate
List Brown's Grammatical Morphemes in the order in which they come in
1) Present progressive (running)
2) In - preposition
3) On - preposition
4) Regular Plural
5) irregular past-tense
6) possessive
7) uncontractible copula (ex: billy was bad)
8) articles 'the' and 'and'
9) regular past tense
10) regular 3rd person singular (she eats)
11) irregular 3rd person singular (daddy has cookie)
12) uncontractible auxiliary (I was eating)
13) Contractible Copula (Billy's bad)
14) Contractible auxiliary (He's running)
receptive vs. expressive language
- receptive language = comprehension/understandign
- expressive language = actually speaking; oral use of language
- we always work on receptive goals first
Define
* language disorder
* languagae delay
* language impairment
* a language disorder = impairments in expressive and/or receptive language
* language delay = slow in developing language, behind for age
* language impairment = encompasses both delays and disorders

- we usually use the term language impairment
What does SLI stand for?
SLI = specific language impairment – kids with this exhibit significant limitations in language functioning that can’t be attributed to deficits in hearing, oral structure and function or general intelligence – they have no other diagnosis other than a language impairment (have good speech sounds)
'developmentally delayed'
We call mental retardation ‘developmentally delayed’ in Canada to describe someone who is socailly, mentally, motor skills, language, academically behind – if we’re just looking at a cognitive delay its called ‘cognitively delayed’ – if it’s a lot of areas, use term global development delay
Brown's 14 Grammatical morphemes in order of appearance
1) Present Progressive (running)
2) In (preposition)
3)On (Preposition)
4)Regular Plural
5) Irregular Past-tense
6)Possessive (Billy’s ball)
7) Uncontracible Copula
(Billy was bad)
8) Articles (the, and)
9) Regular past tense
10)Regular 3rd person singular (she eats)
11) Irregular 3rd person singular (daddy has cookie) 12) contracible auxillary (I was eating)
13) Contractible Copula (Billy’s bad)
14)Contractible auxiliary (He’s running)
receptive vs expressive language
- receptive language = comprehension/understandign
- expressive language = actually speaking; oral use of language
- we always work on receptive goals first
define
*language disorder
*languagae delay
*language impairment
- a language disorder = impairments in expressive and/or receptive language
- language delay = slow in developing language, behind for age
- language impairment = encompasses both delays and disorders
- we usually use the term languagae impairment
What is SLI?
- SLI = specific language impairment – kids with this exhibit significant limitations in language dunctioning that can’t be attributed to deficits in hearing, oral structure and function or general intelligence – they have no other diagnosis other than a language impairment (have good speech sounds)
'developmentally delayed'
- We call mental retardation ‘developmentally delayed’ in Canada to describe someone who is socailly, mentally, motor skills, language, academically behind – if we’re just looking at a cognitive delay its called ‘cognitively delayed’ – if it’s a lot of areas, use term global development delay
- Chronological vs mental age (mental = age they’re cognitively functioning at)
PDD = ?
ASD = ?
*_ out of _ kids will develop autism
* ratio males to females
* _% will never communicate verbally
* characteristics
* Asberger's syndrome
-PDD = pervasive development disorder vs Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
-We use the term ASD, as PDD is under the umbrella of ASD
- 4 out of 10,000 kids will develop autism
- Ratio of males to females is 4:1
- Usually have expressive/receptive language disorders
- 50% never learn to communicate verbally (possibly lower)
- Stim = mom mom mom
- Overstimulation (focusing on one thing)
- Echolalia, drooling, don’t like loud noises, poor eye contact, innapropriate social behaviours, tendency to be extrelemey literal
- Very set in routines, like things very orderly
-Some can’t understand emotions
-varying degrees of severity
-Asberger’s syndrome = higher functioning, pretty good lang, difficulty socially
-The girls who get ASD tend to be more severe
TBI vs CVA
- TBI – traumatic brain injury happens outside the brain
- CVA – cerebrovasculay accident  something neurological that happens inside the brain
- Kids recover better from brain injury than adults because brain is still growing and have more jelly-like quality outside of it