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43 Cards in this Set

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Specific Language Impairment: SLI or Language Learning Disability (LLD)
"Language disorders in children who are otherwise normal. Two Explanations:
Specific Language Impairment: SLI or Language Learning Disability (LLD)
Characteristics: Articulatory and phonological problems, Less complex syllable structure, Word-finding or word-retrieval problems, Learning abstract or figurative words, Marked morphological problems, Shorter utterances, Telegraphic speech, Pragmatic skills vary. May be passive in communicative interactions, Difficulty with topic initiation, turn taking, topic maintenance, narrative skills
Mental Retardation
A disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and adaptive skills. The disability originates before the age of 18. Subaverage intelligence
Mental Retardation: Etiology
Inherited genetic syndromes (Down Syndrome) or environmentally induced genetic abnormalities (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome). Prenatal fetal factors (rubella), natal factors (anoxia), postnatal factors (lead poisoning), TBI, low birth weight, metabolic disorders, and cranial abnormalities.
Mental Retardation Characteristics
Language is delayed, not deviant. Language deficient in all areas, Smaller, concrete vocabularies, Gap between expressive and receptive, receptive is better, Poor morphologic and syntactic skills. Omit function words
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Leo Kanner (1943) described it as a profound emotional disorder of childhood. Hans Asperger (1944) described it as autistic psychopathy.
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism exists on a continuum of severity. Pervasive Developmental Delay (PDD), Asperger’s Syndrome, Rett’s Syndrome, and childhood disintegrative disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosis
Diagnosed before the age of 3. The diagnostic criteria include a)impaired social interaction, b) disturbed communication, and c) stereotypical patterns of behavior, interests and activities
Autism Spectrum Disorder: Characteristics
Below average intelligence. (below 70), Lack of responsiveness and awareness of people, Lack of interest in nonverbal and verbal communication, Insistence on routines, Dislike of being touched, Self-injurious behaviors , Seizures in about 25%, Hyper/po sensitivity to sensory stimulation
Autism Spectrum Disorder: Language Problems
Lack of response to speech, Disinterest in interaction with others, Use of language in a meaningless, stereotypic manner, including echolalia, Perseveration on certain words/phrases, Learns concrete words faster than abstract, Lack of generalization and understanding of word relationships, Short, simple sentences, Omission of grammatical features, pronoun reversal, Pragmatic problems and difficulty with joint reference
Autism Spectrum Disorder: Treatment
Social skills training. Systematic and prolonged language training and behavioral management techniques combined with behavioral language training have been effective. In severe cases AAC is used.
Asperger’s Syndrome
Similar characteristics to Autism but have a higher intelligence, impaired social interactions, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors similar to those with autism. ; Do not have significant communication disorders (under criticism); Acquire language skills better than those with autism, Excellent vocabulary and normal syntactic skills; Atypical social communication; Monologue more than dialogue, talk a lot about preoccupations
Asperger’s Syndrome: Treatment
Primarily concerned with pragmatic deficits; SCERTS: Social Communication Emotional Regulation by Implementing Transactional supports
Traumatic Brain Injury
Cerebral damage due to external physical force
Traumatic Brain Injury: Characteristics
Comprehension problems; Word retrieval problems; Syntactic problems; Syntactic problems; Pragmatic problems; Difficulty with attention and focus; Memory problems; Inability to recognize ones own difficulties; Reduced speed of information processing ; Difficulties with reasoning and organization
Traumatic Brian Injury: Assessment
Standardized language tests not sensitive enough. Have to assess in natural setting
Cerebral Palsy: (CP)
A disorder of early childhood in which the immature nervous system is affected. This results in muscular incoordination and associated problems. May include orthopedic abnormalities, seizures, feeding difficulties, hearing loss, perceptual disturbances, and intellectual deficits. It is not progressive. Can be caused by prenatal, perinatal or postnatal injury. Can have paralysis. Speech and language problems vary in type of CP. Dysarthria is common
Cerebral Palsy: (CP) Types
1. Ataxic: Involves disturbed balance, gait, and uncoordinated movements. 2. Athetoid: Slow, withering, involuntary movements 3. Spastic: Increased spasticity (tone, rigidity of muscles), stiff, abrupt, jerky, slow movements
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: (FAS)
a pattern of mental, physical, and behavioral defects that develop in infants born to some women who drink heavily during pregnancy. It is the leading cause of mental retardation in the Western World.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: (FAS) Characteristics
Delayed motor development, mild-profound retardation, or learning disabilities; Abnormal craniofacial features and malformations of major organ systems; Behavior problems-ADD and hyperactivity; Poor play and social skills; Learning and academic problems; Speech problems such as delayed articulation; Swallowing problems; Auditory processing problems ; Hearing problems – conductive and sensorineural
Fetal Alcohol Effects: (FAE)
are sign in babies that have been liked to the mother’s drinking during pregnancy. Babies do not meet criteria for FAS
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Assessments
Children that have been exposed to alcohol or drugs may have language problems that are not detectable on standardized tests
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: (ADHD)
Two categories: a) inattention and b) hyperactivity-impulsivity. Manifest language problems, auditory processing problems, academic and behavior problems and social interaction skills.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: (ADHD) treatment
Goals may include work on auditory processing skills, pragmatics, and expressive language organization
Dynamic Assessment
A form of authentic assessment, looks at learner modifiability, or a child’s ability to learn when provided with instruction. It often takes place in a test-teach-retest paradigm, in which the child is taught new material, and then retested to see how well and quickly he or she learned the material. A major advantage is that a child is not penalized for a lack of experiences assumed by many standardized tests
Discrete Trial Approach
Used in the initial stages of treatment. Shows a stimulus item, asks a question, models correct response, reinforces correct imitation or gives corrective feedback, record response and initiate next trial
Basic Behavioral Techniques
Instructions, Modeling, Prompting, Shaping, Manual Guidance, Fading, Immediate Response Contingent Feedback
Expansion
Expands a child’s utterance
Extension
Expands and adds new relevant information
Focused Stimulation:
The clinician repeatedly models a target structure to stimulate the child to use it. The clinician uses various stimulus materials, talks about them, and repeatedly models the target structure. (i.e. plurals)
Milieu Teaching
A group of techniques that have been experimentally evaluated and shown to be effective in teaching a variety of language skills to children. This method teaches functional communication skills through the use of typical, everyday verbal interactions that arise naturally.
Milieu Teaching: Step 1: Incidental Learning
1. Incidental teaching: Wait for the child to initiate a verbal response, prompts an elaboration of the response, and praises that child when they elaborate.
Milieu Teaching: Step 2: Mand-Model
2. Mand-Model: Teaches language through the use us typical adult-child interaction. The clinician mands a response form the child (asks a question). The child responds, if not fully, then the clinician models the appropriate response, The child is praised for responding correctly without modeling.
Milieu Teaching: Step 3: Delay
3. Delay: The clinician waits for the child to initiate verbal responses (15 seconds) in relation to stimuli spread around.
Whole Language Approach
Written language skills should be learned like learning oral language. Children learn literacy in the same way they learn spoken language; through being immersed in a literate environment, communicating through print, and getting supportive feedback. Does not involve specific language skill training.
Augmentative and Alternative Communication: (AAC)
Supplement deficient oral communication or provide alternative means of communication for children with extremely limited oral skills.
Low Technology Devices
Do not use electronic instruments, such as notepads or message boards.
High Technology Devices
Electronic instruments such as computers
Iconic Symbols
Looks like the picture it represents
Noniconic Symbols
Arbitrary, abstract, and geometric
Scanning
The user is offered available messages sequentially until into AAC user indicates the messages he or she wants to communicate
Direct Selection
The user selects a message by touching a key pad, touching an item or object, or some other direct means
Facilitated Communication
Used with children with severe impairments (autism or CP). The facilitator uses physical contact with the child hand, wrist, or elbow to facilitate pointing on a message board. Not recommended because it is known to be ineffective.