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116 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
genotype
complex blend of info that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics
phenotypes
direct observable characteristic
genes
segment of DNA along the length of the chromosomes
mitosis
duplication of autosomes
meiosis
duplication of sex chromosomes
genetic counseling
help couples see chances of giving birth to a child with certain characteristics
genetic environmental correlation
our genes influence the environment to which we are exposed
niche-picking
tendency to actively choose environments that compliment our heredity
passive
child has no control over environment (parent good at something, they may be influenced)
active
actively seeking the environment to fit genetic tendency
concordance rate
percentage of instances in which both twins show a trait whin it is presented in one twin
heritability-estimates
the extents to which individuals differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
range of reaction
each person has a unique genetically determined responce to the environment
period of zygote
fertilization, decends down fallopian tube, duplicates and implants
blastocyst
outercells that become placenta, umbilical cord
Period of the embryo
implantation to laying down of bone cells, 95% of all body parts begin to appear
nueral tube
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
ectoderm
skin, sense organs, nervous system
mesoderm
musculartory, circulatory, excretory
endoderm
digestive and glandular
cephalclaudal
top down dev.
proximodistal
center out dev.
period of fetus
until end of pregnancy, "growth and finishing", longest period
age of viability
point at which baby can first survive
teratogen
any environmental agent that causes damage during prenatal period
RH factor
RH-, Rh+, blood may release white blood cells, attach 2nd baby if baby is rh+
amnion
membrane to enclose embryo filled with amniotic fluid to buffer and regulate temperature
placenta
allows exchange of substances thru membrane
umbillical cord
2 arteries that remove waste away from fetus, 1 vein that sends nutrients to baby
critical period
refers to the limited time during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but need support of stimulating environment
Birth Stages
uterin contrations-thin, help child move into birth canal, babys head appear- contractions propell baby foward ends with birth, expulsion of placenta
anoxia
baby does not recieve enough oxygen
low birth weight
baby less than 5.5lbs, more of a problem than preterm
preterm baby
born before 34 weeks gestation
APGAR scale
Appearance, pulse, grimmace, activity, respiration
Brazelton
looks at the babys responce to the environment
eye blink
blink of eyes when sudden stimulation
rooting
touch cheek and baby turns head and starts sucking motion
swimming
shows swimming motion
moro
arm/leg extention in responce to sudden movement
grasp
palmar, plantar
tonic neck
fencing motion
walking
will simulate walking
babinski
side of foot stroked, toes fan out
synaptic pruning
nuerons and synapses that are not used, dissapear and other conections strengthen
breast v. bottle feeding
either is fine if done correctly, breast milk contains all nutrients
gross motor development
control over large actions that help infant move around
fine motor development
smaller movements such as reaching or grasping
marasmus
wasted condition that occurs when not recieving proper nutrients
kwashiorkor
low proteing diet, swelling of belly
visual
least developed sense, 20/600 at birth, 20/20 at 6 months
hearing
very developed sense, still need louder, higher pitched sounds
epistomology
dev. of knowledge, child contributes to his/her own knowledge. "little scientist"
adaptation
involves building schemes through direct interative learning with environment
assimulation
use current schemas to interpret the external world
accomodation
create new schemas or adjust old ones after noticing current ways of thinking do not work
organization
rearrange schemas
sensorimotor
think with eyes, ears, etc. cannot carryout many activities in head
Reflexes
0-1month, assimilation of info by reflexes
Primary circulatory reactions
repeat responces centered on ones own body
Secondary circulatory reaction
repeat schemes that have an effect on environment 4-8
Coordination of secondary schemes
coordinate schemes to attain a goal, means-end, 8-12months
Tertiary Circulatory reaction
repeat actions with variation, more experimentation adapt old schemes to new situations 12-18months
beginning of thought
schemes mentally represented, infant can solve problemts through symbolic meaning, make-believe play 18-24months
Vygotsky
mental functions origin through social interactions
zone of proxil developement
range of task that a child can do with out help, with help, etc
scaffolding
providing different levels of assistance depending on childs ability
LAD
device that a child can understand all languages, but goes away when learning just 1
phonology
understand exxpression of sounds patterns
semantics
word meanings
syntax
rules of putting words together
pragmatics
language as a communication tools
child directed speech
short sentences with high pitched exagerated expression, clear pronounciation and pauses
basic emotions
can tell from facial expressions, happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust
social smile
evoked by the stimulus of the human face, around 6-10 weeks old
laughter
3-4 months in responce to active stimuli
fear
rises during the second hald of the first year, stranger aniety
temperment
stable individual differences in quantity and intensity of emotional reactions, activity level, attention, and emotional self regulation: easy, difficult, slow to warm up
goodness of fit
having a favorable environmentto provide favorable outcomes with difficult and slow to warm up kids
attachment
strone tie with someone
Secure attachment
infant shows some distress on seperation from attachment figure, joy upon reunion, comforted by caregiver, preferance for person over stranger, cooperative, use figure as secure base for attachment
insecure attachment
no distress when seperated, aviodant on reunion, no pref. over person and stranger, does not maintaing contact with caregiver
disorganized, disoriented
contradictory behavior, least securse attachment, lacks coherent strategy for handling separations and reunions
I-self
earliest to emerge, awarness that self is seperate from the world and can control its own thoughts and actions
Me-self
2nd year, sense of self as an object of knowledge and evaluation consist of all the qualities that make the self unique
emotional self-regulation
strategies used to adjust emotional states to a comfortable level of intensity so that we can accomplish our goals
self conscious emotions
injury to or enhancement of the sense of self. 2nd year
authoritative
warm, but firm control
authoritarian
stricted control, low warmth
permissive indulgent
little control, high warmth
Permissive indifferent
low warmth, low control
induction
teach child how to empathesize with others, and see the other side
time out
removal of child from situation. parents should take time out
peer relationships
important social skills, early friendships start at 3, immature understanding of friendship
Social Problem solving
interpret social cues, hold bias expectations, how to resolve problems
Agression
agression starts off as instrumental, then becomes people oriented, boys more agressive than girls
Gender development
sterotyping starts early, learn from culture etc.
Preoperational thought
halmark-ability to use inner symbols to represent reality, limitation- egocentric, unable to seperate his/her thoughts from others, can only pay attention to one thing at a time
sociodramitic play
make-believe play with others, ability to develope story lines
Theory of mind
set of ideas about mental activities
Metacognition
Thinking about thought
Preschool
can enhance cognitive dev. more toward assisted discovery and cooperative learning
autism
A psychiatric disorder of childhood characterized by marked deficits in communication and social interaction, preoccupation with fantasy, language impairment, and abnormal behavior, such as repetitive acts and excessive attachment to certain objects. It is usually associated with intellectual impairment.
secular trend
changes in body size from one generation to the next, children and larger today
injuries and illnesses
children higher rate of illness during first 2 years
motor vehicles and bikes most injuries
health education
need good health information, often get it from tv etc, growing independence, increasing cognitive dev capacities, self concept, physical well being
child invented games
games with rules more common in middle childhood, allow children to understand the roles, more mature concept of fairness and justice
Adult organized sports
may be robbing crucial learning experiences, may join teams beyond their capabilities
rough and tumble play
friendly chasing and playing among children
physical education
regular exercise, support healthy bodies sense of self worth and skills to get along with others
concrete operational period
has stable organized cognitive system, decentered, reversibility, conservation, seriation,
attention
controlled, adaptable and planfull, production deficientcie, control, utilization, and effective
rehearsal
repeting information to oneself
organization
grouping of items together of related items
elaboration
creating relationship or shared meaning between two or more items
cognitive self regulation
process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal checking outcomes and redirecting unsuccessful efforts