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45 Cards in this Set

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Children that reguraly look after themselves during after-school hours.
Self-care children
When do parents begin to impose gender perception on their children?
before birth
Specific psychological structures - organized ways of making sense of experience.
Schemes
Name the 2 processes associated with schemes
Adaptation and Organization
Involves buliding schemes through direct interaction with the enviornment
Adaptation
Using our current schemes to interpret the external world
Assimilation
Creating new schemes to interpret the external world.
Accommodation
A process that takes place internally, apart from dierct contact with the enviornment. Once children form new schemes, they rearrange them, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system.
Organization
Adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance.
Scaffolding
What does Vygotsky's approach to education entail, and what does he think drives development?
Emphasizes assisted discovery, and believes make-believe play, is the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood.
What does the sub-stage 4 of the sensorimotor period, Coordiation of secondary circular reactions (8 to 12 ms) entail?
Intention, or goal directed, behavior; ability to find a hidden object in the first location in which it is hidden (object permanence) improved anticipation of events; imiataion of behaviors slightly different from those the infant usually performs.
The understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight.
Object permanence
The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions.
Animistic thinking
The inability to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own.
Egocentrism
The tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect other important features
Centration
The ability to mentally fo through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
Reversibility
Called private speech, it helps a child to help them through difficult tasks or when they are confused about a situation.
Self-directed speech
As informatin that flows through each memory, we can operate on and transform it using mental strategies, increasing the chances that we will retain information and use it efficiently.
Awareness of own mental strategies
1st place information enters. Sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly.
Sensory register
The 2nd place information enters. Where we actively "work" on a limited amount of information, applying mental strategies.
Working, or short-term memory
Directs the flow of infromation. Decides what to attend to, coordinates incoming information with information already in the system, and selects, applies, and monitors strategies.
Central executive
Our permanent knowledge base
Long-term memory
Young children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences.
Emergent literacy
What is the onset of middle childhood?
6 to 12 years
Growth during the school years is...
2 to 3 inches and 5 pounds per year.
A form of peer interaction involving freindly chasing and play fighting that, in our evolutionary past, may have been important for the development of fighting skill
Rough-and-tumble play
Quicker and more accurate movements
Agility
Supports rapid changes in direction in many team sports, many athletic skills, running, hopping, skipping, throwing, and kicking.
Balance
The ability to throw and kick harder and propel farther off the ground when running and jumping
Force
Physically more pliable and elastic, a differecnce that can be seen in swinging bats, kicking balls, tumbling, and jumping over hurdles
Flexibility
A child-rearing style that is low in acceptance and involvement, is high in coercive control, and restricts rather than grants autonomy.
Authoritarian
A child rearing style that is high in acceptance and involvement, is high in coercive control, and restricts rather than grants autonomy.
Authoritative
A child-rearing style that is high in acceptance but overindulging or inattentive, low in control, and lenient rather than appropriate in autonomy granting.
Permissive
A child-rearing style that combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and effort to grant autonomy. Reflects minimal commitment to parenting.
Uninvolved
Get many positive votes
Popular children
Are actively disliked
rejected children
Get a large number of positive and negative votes
Controversial children
Are seldom mentioned, either positively or negatively
Neglected children
Actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self. Deal with empathy and sympathy.
Prosocial behavior
Aggression aimed at obtaining an object, privilege, or space with no deliberate intent to harm another person.
Instrumntal aggression
A form of hostile aggression that damages another's peer relationships, as in social exclusion or rumor spreading.
realtional aggression
Are boys or girls instrumentally or realtionally aggressive?
g-r
b-i
An image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics.
Gender identity
What basic human emotions do we have?
happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust.
The set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is.
Self-concept