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6 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Natural Selection
The evolutionary process that favors individuals of a species that are best adapted to survive and reproduce.
Adaptive Behavior
Behavior that promotes an organism’s survival in the natural habitat. Adaptive behavior involves the organism’s modification of its behavior to include its likelihood of survival. All organisms must adapt to particular places, climates, food sources, and ways of life.
An example of adaptation is an eagle’s claws, which facilitate predation. In the human realm, attachment is a system that ensures an infant’s closeness to the caregiver for feeding protection from danger.
Evolutionary Psychology
Psychology’s newest approach
Emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and “survival of the fittest” in explaining behavior. Evolution favors organisms that are best adapted to survive and reproduce in a particular environment. The evolutionary psychology approach focuses on conditions that allow individuals to survive or to fail. In this view, the evolutionary processes of natural selection favors behaviors that increase organisms’ reproductive success and their ability to pass their genes to the next generation.
David Buss
His ideas on evolutionary psychology have ushered in a whole new wave of interest in how evolution can explain human behavior. He believes that just as evolution shapes our physical features, such as body shape and height, it also pervasively influences how we make decisions, how aggressive we are, our fears, and our mating patterns.
Views proposed by evol. Devol. Psychol., for detail, see p 68
▪An extended “juvenile” period is needed to develop a large brain and learn the complexity of human social communities.
▪Many aspects of childhood function as preparations for adulthood and were selected over the course of evolution.
(e.g. boys playing rough and tumble, girls playing house and dolls)
▪Some child characteristics were selected to be adaptive at specific points in development and not as preparation for adulthood. (e.g. play provides a context for children to engage in physical exercise and to learn about their current environment.
▪Many evolved psychological organisms are domain-specific. Domain-specific information processing has evolved to help people deal with recurring problems faced by their ancestors. In this view, the mind is not a general-purpose device that can be applied equally well to a vast array of problems. Rather, it consists of a set of specialized modules. Also in this view, infants enter the world prepared to learn some information more readily than other information and these preparations serve as a foundation for social and cognitive development across the childhood and adolescent years. Modules have been proposed for physical knowledge(such as the concept that objects are permanent), math, and language.
▪Evolved mechanisms are not always adaptive in contemporary society. Just because some behaviors were adaptive for our prehistoric ancestors does not mean they will serve us well today. For example, being physically dominant and aggressive was adaptive and necessary for survival in prehistoric males. Today=no
Albert Bandura
Acknowledges the important influence of evolution on human adaptation and change. However, he rejects what he calls, “one-sided evolutionism,” which sees social behavior as the product of evolved biology, in favor of a bidirectional view. this view, evol. pressures created changes in boil. structures for the use of tools, which enabled organisms to manipulate, alter, and construct new envir. conditions. Environmental innovations of increasing complexity produced, in turn, new selection pressures for the evolution of specialized biological systems for consciousness, thought, and language. Hum. ev. gave us body structures and bio. potentialities, not behavioral dictates. Band. – the pace of social change shows that bio does permit a range of possibilities.