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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
social cognition
children's understanding of the dynamics of human interactions
self esteem in middle chilhood
self esteem declines throughout middle childhood, reaches a low at about age 12 then gradually rises up again
social comparison
comparing their skills and acheivements with those of others
past failures in a particular area may teach a child that theyu are unable to do anything to improve their performance or situation
being withdrawn or shy may cause it
low self esteem, poor performance in school
a child's repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm on another
family influences
family functions:
-meets basic food, shelter, and clothing needs
-encourages learning
-develops children's self estoom
-nurtures peer friendships
-provides harmony and stability
the variables in the family that influence success or failure
-parenting style
-one vs two adults heading the family
-genetic or legal relationship among household members
-socio-economic status
nuclear family
-two adult family
-better economic status
-better health, housing, nutrition, and education
-has the highest success rate as far as children are concerned
single parent family
when a two parent family breaks down
90% headed by women
negative effects often apparent in the first two years or so and then generally declines
variables that influence adjustment after divorce
1. harmony - bitterness and hostility
2. stability of daily life-changes in child's life, lower income, change of residence or school
3. stability for younger and older children- transitional periods, younger children more disturbed immediatly, older children feel effects longer
4. sex of child-males have more difficulty adjusting-lack of male role model
5. long term involvement of both parents is beneficial
cope stresses
the more stresses that occur the greater the disruptions
what helps children cope?
something that helps with confidence, find something that the child is good at, parents put emphasis on it, raises their confidence
definition of puberty
period of physical growth that ends childhood and brings the person to adult size, shape, and sexual potential
a female's first menstrual period
occurs between 9 and 15
a males first ejaculation of live sperm, whether through masturbation, a dream, or sexual contact with another person
growth spurt
the period of relatively sudden and physical growth of every part of the body
also the first instance of the change in growth, not proximal distal, but distal proximal
wider taller then stronger how?
lung capacity-able to sustain high activity level for a longer period of time
weight gain
what vitiman do females tend to be short on?
anorexia nervosa
wating disorder charachterized by cumpulsive undereating that results in emaciation, starvation, and sometimes death
eating disorder that is characterized by repeated episodes of pvereating followed by elimination through vomiting or use of laxitives
what are the three gateway drugs?
tobacco, alcohol, and marijuanna
drug use
simply ingestion of drug, regardless of the amount or effect
drug abuse
ingestion of drug to extent that users' well being is impaired
drug addiction
ingestion to a level that person craves more of drug to feel physically or psychologically at ease
formal operational thought
adolescents are able to speculate, hypothesize, and fantisize.
adolescent egocentrism
charachteristic of adolescent thinking that sometimes leads young pple to focus on themselves to the exclusion of other's
fantasies and fables
imagine their lives as heroic or mythical
imaginary audience
assume that pple will be watching us
ego involvement in learning
based on test grade
task involvement learning
looking at cooperative learning
how do parents help influence adolescents?
listen listen listen!
multiple selves
teens playing different roles with different pple in different circumstances
identity acheivement
occurs when youths acheive thier new identity through selective repudiation and mutial assiliation of childhood identifications
identity moratorium
experimentation with alternative identities b4 accomplishing id achievment
accepting of earlir roles and parental values whole-sale without exploring alternatives
negative identity
forge identity that is opposite of the one they are expected to take
identity diffusion
few committments to goals or values
ethnic identity
do i thrive for my ethnicity or resort to the melting pot?
exagerated gender stereotypes
adolescents often hold exagerated gender stereotype notions, this makes things especially challenging for pple who have a different gender identity such as gays or lesbians
rite of passage
sweet 16, la quinceanera, debutantes' ball, senior prom, driver's liscence, voting
increases in adolescents
adolescent suicide
why do they do it?
effort to escape from self, from feelings of inadequacy, feeling of letting parents or society down facing high expectations
suicide attempt that is unsuccessful
which gender is more sucessful at committing suicide?
generation gap
substantial agreement between parents and adolescents on issues such as political, vocational, educational, and religious
generation stake
-parents strive to ensure continuity of their own values
-adolescents search for their own values
-disagreement can result