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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Developmental Disorders
Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Language and Learning Disorders
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (“externalizing”)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Oppositional Defiant Disorder; Conduct Disorder
Affective Disorders (“internalizing”)
Anxiety Disorders
Depression; Bipolar Disorder
Other disorders
Tic Disorders/Tourette’s Disorder; Eating Disorders; Substance Use D/O’s; Schizophrenia
Separation Anxiety Disorder: 5 to 8 y/o
unrealistic worry about harm to parents or attachment figures and school refusal
Separation Anxiety Disorder: 9 to 12 y/o
excessive distress at times of separation
Separation Anxiety Disorder: adolescent
somatic complaints and school refusal.
Depression
Irritability is often the primary symptom

Kids often brighten temporarily when in positive environment or with friends

School performance often drops (amotivation, poor concentration)
Bipolar Disorder
1% of adolescents

High rates of comorbidity with other disorders (esp. ADHD, ODD, anxiety disorders and substance abuse in teens)
Psychosis
Delusions, Hallucinations, Disorganized Thinking

early-onset schizophrenia
Three cardinal diagnostic features of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Hyperactivity
Inattention/Distractibility
Impulsivity
Deficit in executive functioning of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Problems with learning/maintaining rule-governed behavior
Cannot hold behavior/consequence contingencies over time
Core deficits in attention and inhibition are highly genetic T/F
70%-90% genetic contribution
ADHD - Epidemiology
% of school age children?
male to female ratio?
symptom onset?
3-8%
3:1 to 8:1
before 7
ADHD – Clinical Course
About 30% improve substantially in adolescence
1/3 have some subthreshold symptoms as adults, but not substantial impairment
1/3 still very symptomatic into adulthood

Sequelae include substance use, school failure, antisocial behavior
Oppositional Defiant D/O
Recurrent pattern of negativistic, defiant, hostile, and disobedient behavior towards authority figures

Stubbornness, resistance to directions, unwilling to compromise

Deliberate limit-testing, arguing, failing to accept blame

Deliberately annoys others, verbal aggression

Often comorbid with ADHD

Often antecedent to Conduct Disorder
Conduct Disorder
Repetitive and persistent behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms

Aggression to people and/or animals

Deceitfulness or theft
Property destruction

Serious violations of rules (truancy, running away, repeatedly staying out all night prior to age 13)
Course of Conduct D/O
High rates of substance abuse
High rates of suicidal ideation and attempts
Poor school performance
Many progress to antisocial behavior as adults
Autism
Impairment in Language
Deficits in social functioning
Abnormally restricted activities and interests; repetitive unusual behaviors
likely exists on a spectrum
Autism: Age of onset before age ___ in 94% cases
3
Autism: Ratio of male:female

ethnic groups, SES status?
4-5:1

even distribution
ASD – Impairment of Social Interactions
Limited awareness of the existence of others or the feelings of others (lack of “theory of mind”)
Absent or abnormal seeking of comfort at times of distress
Absence of sharing experiences with others (“bring to show”)
Absent or abnormal social play
Gross impairment in ability to make peer friendships
ASD – Impairment of Communication/Language Abnormalities
May have no mode of verbal communication
Markedly abnormal non-verbal communication
Absence of playacting, fantasy life, etc.
Abnormalities in the production of speech
Echolalia, idiosyncratic use of words or phrases, abnormal prosody or articulation
Impairment in ability to sustain a conversation with others
ASD – Impaired Repertoire of Activities/Interests
Stereotyped body movements
Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
Marked distress over changes in trivial aspects of environment
Unreasonable insistence on following routines in precise detail
Markedly restricted range of interests
Autistic Spectrum Disorders – Associated symptoms
Difficulty in cognitive functioning, learning, attention, and sensory processing
50-75% have mental retardation
Higher incidence of abnormal EEG and seizures
Self-injurious behavior
Unusual posturing and other motor behaviors (repetitive, non-functional movements
Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders
Best estimates: 1/160 – 1/300 for autistic spectrum d/o’s
More recent studies show higher prevalence
May be related to broader criteria & better case finding
Asperger’s Disorder
Normal early language development and intelligence (often still has subtle language abnormalities)
Impairment in social functioning and restriction in interests like autism (usually milder)
PDD NOS
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Meets some but not all criteria for autism
Milder and generally less impairing than autism
Tourette’s Syndrome
Motor and vocal tics, lasting at least one year in duration
Tics: sudden, rapid, recurrent, non-rhythmic, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization
Tics vs. compulsions – may be a spectrum
Tic = repetitive, purposeless, non-goal directed, involuntary, partially suppressible
Compulsion = repetitive, with purpose (to relieve anxiety), goal-directed, quasivoluntary, partially suppressible
Tourette’s - Epidemiology
Prevalence rate at least 0.1%
- Milder forms of tic disorders are much more common

Ratio of male:female = 2-3 : 1

Median age of onset is 6 years (range 1-17 years of age)
Other Movement Disorders: Choreiform
dancing, random, irregular, non-repetitive
Other Movement Disorders:Dystonic
slower, twisting movements interspersed with prolonged muscle tension
Other Movement Disorders:Athetoid
slow, irregular, writhing
Other Movement Disorders:Myoclonic
brief, shock-like muscle contractions
Tourette’s – Associated Symptoms
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and other behavior disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Depression
Substance Abuse