Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

139 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a brain structure that aids in balance and control of body movement
corpus callosum
the large bundle of fibers that connects the two hemispeheres of the brain
dominant cerebral hemisphere
the hemisphere of the brain responsible for skilled motor action. The left hemisphere is dominant in right handed individuals. In left handed individuals, the right hemisphere may be dominant, or motor and language skills may be shared between the hemispheres
general growth curve
a curve that represents overall changes in body size - rapid growth during infancy, slower gains in early and middle childhood, and rapid growth during adolescence
growth hormone
a pituitary hormone that affects the development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals
pituitary gland
a gland located near the base of the brain that releases hormones affecting physical growth
psychosocial dwarfism
a growth disorder observed between 2 and 15 years of age. Characterized by very short stature, decreased GH secretion, immature skeletal age, and serious adjustment problems, which help distinguish psychosocial dwarfism from normal shortness. Caused by emotional deprevation.
reticular formation
a brain structure that maintains alertness and consciousness
thyroid-stimulating hormone
a pituitary hormone that simulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine, which is necessary for normal brain development and body growth.
aboriginal head start
a canadian federal program that provides first nations, inuit, and metis children younger than age 6 with preschool education and nutritional and health services and that encourages parent involvement in program planning and childrens learning
academic programs
educational programs in which teachers structure young childrens learning, teaching letters, numbers, colors, shapes, and other academic skills through formal lessons, often using repetition and drill.
animistic thinking
the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities such as thoughts, wishes, feelings and intentions
a principle stating that the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in the set
the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect other important feautres
child-centered programs
educational programs in which teachers provide activities from which young children select, and most of the day is devoted to play.
the understanding that certain characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.
dual representation
viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol
the inability to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from ones own
emergent literacy
young children's active efforts to contruct literacy knowledge through informal experiences
episodic memory
memory for everday experiences
Adult responses that elaborate on a child's utterance, increasing its complexity
fast mapping
connecting a new word with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter
guided participation
a concept that calls attention to adult and child contributions to a cooperative dialogue without specifying the precise features of communication, thereby allowing for variations across situations and cultures
heirarchical classification
the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences
the process whereby two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding
the inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
mental strategies
in information processing, procedures that operate on and transform information, thereby increasing the efficiacy and flexibility of thinking and the chances information will be maintained
thinking about thought; awareness of mental activities
mutual exclusivity bias
in the early phase of vocabulary growth, childrens assumptions that words refer entirely seperate (non overlapping) categories
mental representations of actions that obey logical rules
a principle specifying order (more-than and less-than) relationships between quantities
overlapping-waves theory
a theory of problem solving, which states that when given challenging problems, children generate a variety of stategies and gradually selec those that result rapid, accurate situations, yielding an overlapping-waves pattern of development
application of regular grammatical rules to words that are exceptions
phonological awareness
the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language, as indicated by sensitivity to changes in sounds within words, to rhyming, and to incorrect pronunciation. A strong predictor of emergent literacy during early childhood and of later reading and spelling achievement.
thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time aand allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal
the practical, social side of language that is concerned with how to engage in effective and appropriate communication with others
preoperational stage
piaget's second stage, in which rapid growth representation takes place but thought is not yet logical. extends from 2 to 7 years
private speech
self-directed speech that children use to plan and guide their own behavior
project head start
the largest federally funded program in the united states, which provides low income children with a year or two of preschool education, along with nutritional and medical services, and which encourages parent involvement in childrens development
adult responses that restructures children's incorrect sppech into a more appropriate form
a changing quality of social support over the course of a teaching session, in which the adult adjusts the assistant provided to fit the child's current level of performance. As competence increases, the adult gradually and sensitively withdraws support, turning over responsibility to the child
general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation. A basic means through which children organize and inerpret repeated events
semantic bootstrapping
figuring out grammatical rules by relying on word meanings
sociodramatic play
the make believe play with others that is under way by age 2.5
syntactic bootstrapping
figuring out word meanings by observing how words are used in the structure of sentences
a type of gender identity in which the person scores high on both traditionally feminine personality characteristics
associative play
a form of true social participation, in which children are engaged in separate activities but interact by exchanging toys and commenting on one anothers behavior.
authoritarian child rearing style
a child rearing style that is low in acceptance and involvement, is high in coercive control, and restricts rather than grants autonomy
authoritative child rearing style
a child rearing style that is high in acceptance and involvement, emphasizes firm control with explanations, and includes gradual, appropriate autonomy granting
child-rearing styles
combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduirng child rearing climate.
cooperative play
a form of true social participation, in which children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme or working on the same project.
gender constancy
the understanding that sex remains the same even if clothing, hairstyle and play activities change
gender identity
an image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics
gender schema theory
an information processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive developmental features to explain how environmental pressures and children's cognitions together shape gender-role development
gender typing
the process of developing gender roles, or gender-linked preferences and behaviors valued by the larger society
hostile agression
aggression intended to harm another person
a type of discipline in which the effects of the childs misbehavior on others are communicated to the child
initiative vs guilt
in eriksons theory, the psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively though play experiences that foster a healthier sense of initiative and through the development of a super ego, or conscience, that is not overly strict and guilt ridden
instrumental aggression
aggression aimed at obtaining an object, privilidge, or space with no deliberate intent to harm another person.
nonsocial activity
unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play.
overt aggression
a form of hostile aggression that harms others through physical injury or the threat of such injury - for example hitting kicking or threatening to beat up a peer
parallel play
a form of limited social participation in which the child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
permissive child rearing style
a child rearing style that is high in acceptance but overindulgent or inattentive, low in control, and lenient rather than appropriate in autonomy granting
prosocial or altruistic behavior
actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self
relational aggression
a form of hostile aggression that damages anothers peer realtionships, as in social exclusion or rumor spreading.
self concept
the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is
self esteem
the aspect of self concept that involves judgments about ones own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements
social problem solving
resolving social conflics in ways that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self. Involved noticing and accurately interpreting social cues, formulating goals that enhance relationships, generating and evaluating problem solving strategies, and enacting a response.
feelings of concern or sorrow for anothers plight
time out
a form of mild punishment in which children are removed from the immediate setting until they are ready to act appropriately
uninvolved child rearing style
a child rearing style that combines low and acceptance and involvement with little control and effort to grant auntonomy. Reflects minimal commitment to parenting.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
a childhood disorder involving inattentiveness, impulsivity, and excessive motor activity. Often leads to academic failure and social problems
basic skills approach
an approach to beginning reading instruction that emphasizes training in phonics - the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds - and simplified reading materials.
cognitive inhibition
the ability to resist interference from internal and external distracting stimuli, thereby ensuring that working memory is not cluttered with irrelevant information
cognitive maps
mental representations of familiar, large scale spaces, such as school or neighborhood.
cognitive self regulation
the process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.
community of learners
a educational approach inspired by vygotsky's theory in which teachers guide the overall process of learning, but otherwise no distinction is made between adult and child contributors. All participate in joint endeavors and have the authority to define and resolve problems
concrete operational stage
piagets third stage, during which thought is logical, flexible, and organized in its application to concrete information.
constructivist classroom
a classroom that encourages students to contruct their own knowledge, though richly equipped learning centers, small groups and individuals solving problems they choose themselves, and a teacher who guides and supports in response to childrens needs. Studens are evaluated by considering their progress in realtion to their own prior development. Often grounded in Piaget's theory.
control deficiency
the inability to execute a mental strategy consistently
convergent thinking
the generation of a single correct answer to a problem. The type of cognition emphasized on intelligence tests.
cooperative learning
collaboration on a task by a small group of students who resolve differences of opinion, share responsibility, consider one another's ideas, and work toward common goals
the ability to produce work that is original yet approriate - something that others have not thought of but that is useful in some way.
the ability to focus on several aspects of a problem at once and relate them.
divergent thinking
the generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task of problem.
dynamic assessment
an approach to testing consistent with vygotskys zone of proximal development, in which an adult introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with social support.
educational self fulfilling prohecy
the idea that children may adopt teachers positive or negative attitudes towards them and start to live up to these views
effective strategy use
consistent use of a mental strategy that leads to improvement in perfomance
the memory strategy of creative a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that are not members of the same catagory
FLYNN effect
the steady increase in IQ that has occured from one generation to the next
full inclusion
placement of pupils with learning difficulties in regular classrooms for the entire school day
displaying exceptional intellectual strengths. Includes high IQ, creativity and talent
horizontal decalage
development within a piagetian stage. gradual mastery of logical concepts during the concrete operational stage is an example
learning disabilities
specific learning disorders that lead children to achieve poorly in school, despite an average or above average IQ. believed due to faulty brain functioning
placement of pupils with learnign disorders in regular classrooms for part of the school day
metalinguistic awareness
the ability to think about language as a system
in piaget's theory, the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system. In information processing, the memory strategy of grouping related items
production deficiency
the failure to produce a mental strategy when it could be helpful
reciprocal teaching
a teaching method based on vygotskys thepry in which a teacher and two to four students form a cooperative group. Dialogues occur that create a zone of proximal development in which reading comprehension improves
the memory strategy or repeating information
the ability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point
the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
social contructivist classroom
a classroom in which children participate in a wider range or challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings. As children appropriate (take for themselves) the knowledge and strategies generated from working together, they advance in cognitive and social development and become competent, contributing members of their cultural community.
stereotype threat
the fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype, which can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance
outstanding performance in a particular field
theory of multiple intelligences
gardner's theory, which proposes at least eight independent intelligences on the basis of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range or culturally valued activities
traditional classroom
an elementary school classroom based on the educational philosophy that children are passive learners who acquire information presented by teachers. children's process is evaluated on the basis of how well they keep up with a uniform set of standards for all students in their grade.
transitive inference
the ability to seriate - or order items along a quantitative dimension - mentally
triarchic theory pf successful intelligence
sternbergs theory, which differentiates three broad, interacting intelligences: (1) analytical intelligence (information processing skills) (2) creative intelligence (capacity to solve novel problems) (3) and practical intelligence (application of intellectual skills in everday situations). Intelligent behavior involves balancing all three to achieve success in life, according to ones personal goals and the requirements on ones cultural community
utilization deficiency
the inability to improve performance even with consistent use of a mental strategy.
whole language approach
an approach to beginning reading instruction that parallels childrens natural language learning and uses reading materials that are whole and meaningful
attribution training
an intervention that encourages learned helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting more effort
common, everday explanations for the causes of behavior
blended or reconstituted family
a family structure resulting from cohabitation or remarraige that includes parent child and step relatives
distributive justice
beliefs about how to divide material goods fairly
a transitional form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while permitting children to be in charge or moment by moment decision making
divorce mediation
a series of meetings between divorcing adults and a trained professional aimed at reducing family conflict, including legal battles over property division and child custody
emotion centered coping
an approach to coping with stress that is internal, private and aimed at controlling negative emotion when little can be done about an outcome
industy vs inferiority
in eriksons theory, the psychological conflict of middle childhood, which is resolved positively when experiences lead children to develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks
joint custody
a child custody arrangement following divorce in which the court grants both parents equal say in important decisions about the childs upbringing
learned helplessness
attributions that credit success to luck and failure to low ability. Leads to anxious loss of control in the face of challenging tasks.
mastery oriented attributions
attributions that credit success to high ability and failure to insufficient effort. Lead to high self esteem and a willingness to approach challenging tasks
perspective taking
the capacity to imagine what other people are thinking and feeling
an intense, unmanageable fear that leads to persistent avoidance of the feared situation
problem centered coping
an approach to coping with stress in which the individual appraised the situation as changeable, indentifies the difficulty, and decides what to do about it
self care children
children who look after themselves during the after school hours
social comparisons
judgements of appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others
sociometric techniques
self report measures that assess peer acceptance by asking peers to evaluate one anothers likeability
controversial children
children who get a large number of positive and negative votes on sociometric measures or peer acceptance
neglected children
children who are seldomn mentioned, either positively or negatively on sociometric measures of peer acceptance
peer acceptance
Peer acceptance refers to likeability – the extent to which a child is viewed by a group of age mates, such as classmates, as a worthy social partner.
peer group
collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers.
peer victimization
a destructive form of peer interaction in which certain children become frequent targets of verbal and physical attacks or other forms of abuse.
popular children
positive votes on sociometric measures of peer acceptance
popular antisocial children
consists largely of “tough boys” or athletically skilled, but poor students.
popular prosocial children
combine academic and social confidence
rejected children
activelt disliked and get many negative votes on sociometric measures of peer acceptance
rejected aggressive children
show high rates of conflict, aggression, and hyper active, inattentive, and impulsive behavior.
rejective withdrawn children
passive and socially awkward