Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/125

Click to flip

125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bonding
parents feelings of affection and concern for the newborn baby
neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS)
a test developed to assess the behavior of an infant during the newborn period
non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep
a "regular" sleep state in which the body is quiet and heart rate, breathing, brain wave activity are slow and regular.
postpartum depression
feelings of sadness and withdrawal that appear shortly after childbirth and that continue for weeks or months
rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep
An "irregular" sleep state in which brain-wave activity is similar to that of the waking state. eyes dart beneath the lids; heart rate, blood pressure and breathing are all uneven, and slight body movements occur.
reflex
an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation
rooming in
an arrangement in which the newborn baby stays in the mothers hospital room all or most of the time
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
the unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant younger than 1 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough explanation
visual acuity
fineness of visual discrimination
affordances
the action possibilities that a situation offers an organism with certian motor capabilities. Discovering affordances plays a major role in perceptual differentiation
brain plasticity
the ability of other parts of the brain to take over functions of damaged regions. Declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize.
cephalocaudal trend
An organized pattern of physical growth and motor control that procceds from head to tail
cerebral cortex
the largest, most complex structure of the human brain, and the one responsible for the highly developed intelligence of the human species. Surrounds the rest of the brain, much like a half-shelled walnut.
classical conditioning
a form of learning that involving associating a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus that, through pairing with an unconditional stimulus (UCS), leads to a new response (CR)
conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus that, through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), leads to a new response (CR).
contrast sensitivity
a general principle accounting for early pattern preferences, which states that if babies can detect a difference in contrast between two or more patterns, they will prefer the one with more contrast
differentiation theory
the view that perceptual development involves the detection of increasingly fine grained, invariant features in the environment
dynamic systems theory of motor development
a theory that views new motor skills as reorganizations of previously mastered skills that lead to more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment
epiphyses
growth centers in the bones where new cartilidge cells are produced and gradually harden
experience-dependent brain growth
new growth and refinement of brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across inividuals and cultures. Follows experience-expectant brain growth
experience-expectant brain growth
the young brains rapidly developing organgaization, which depends on ordinary experiences - opportunities to see and touch objects, to hear language and other sounds, and to move about and explore the environment. Provides the foundation for experience-dependent brain growth
fontanels
six soft spots that seperate the bones of the skull at birth
glial cells
cells that are responsible for myliniation
habituation
a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetative stimulus
imitation
learning by copying the behavior of another person. Also called modeling or observational learning
intermodal perception
perception that combines stimululation from more than one sensory system at a time
invariant features
in differentiation theory of perceptual development, features that remain stable in a constantly changing perceptual world.
kwashiorkor
a disease that is caused by a diet low in protein and that usually appears after weaning, between 1 and 3 years of age. Symptoms include an enlarged belly, swollen feet, hair loss, skin rash, and irritable, listless behavior
lateralization
specialization of functions in the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
marasmus
a disease usually appearing in the first year of life that is caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. Leads to a wasted body condition
myelination
a process in which neural fibers are coated with an insulating fatty sheath (called myelin) that improves the efficiency of message transfer
neurons
nerve cells that store and transmit information
nonorganic failure to thrive
a growth disorder usually present by 18 months of age that is caused by lack of affection and stimulation
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which a spontaneous behavior is followed by a stimulus that changes the probability that the behavior occured.
pincer grasp
the well coordinated grasp emerging at the end of the first year, involving thumb and finger opposition
prereaching
the poorly coordinated, primitive reaching movements of newborn babies
proximodistal trend
an organization pattern of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from the center of the body outward
punishment
in operant condition, a stimulus (removal of a desirable one or presentation of an un-pleasant one) that decreases the occurrence of a response
recovery
following habituation, an increase in responsiveness to a new stimulus
reinforcer
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that increases the occurence of a response
shape constancy
perception of an objects size as the same, despite changes in the size of its retinal image
size constancy
perception of an objects size as the same, despite changes in the size of its retinal image
skeletal age
an estimate of physical maturity based on development of the bones of the body
synapses
the gap between neurons, acorss which chemical messages are sent
synaptic pruning
loss of connective fibers by seldom stimulated neurons, thereby returning them to an un-committed state so they can support the development of future skills
ulnar grasp
the clumsy grasp of the young infant, in which the fingers close against the palm
unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, a reflexive response that is produced by an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response
A not B search error
the error made by 8-12 months old after an object is moved from hiding place A, to hiding place B. Infants in Piaget's substage 4 search for it only in the first hiding place
accommodation
that part of adaption in which new schemes are created and old ones adjusted to produce a better fit with the environment
adaption
in piaget's theory, the process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment. Made up of two processes, assimilation and accomodation
assimilation
that part of adaption in which the external world is interpreted in terms of current schemes
autobiographical memory
representations of special, one time events that are long lasting because the are imbued with personal meaning
babbling
repeating of consonant-vowel combinations in long strings, beginning around 4 months of age
broca's area
a language structure located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere of the cerebreal cortex that controls language and production
central executive
in information processing, the conscious part of working memory that directs the flow of information through the mental system by deciding what to attend to, coordinating incoming information with information already in the system, and selecting, applying, and monitoring stages
child-directed speech
a form of language adults use to speak to young children that consists of short senstences with high pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts
circular reaction
in piaget's theory, a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat a chance event caused by their own motor activity
comprehension
in language development, the words and word combinations that children understand
cooing
pleasant vowel-like noises made by infants, beginning around 2 months of age
core knowledge perspective
a perspective that states tht infants are born with a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought, each of which permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefor supports early, rapid development of certian aspects of development
deferred imitation
the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present
developmental quotient or DQ
a score on an infant intelligence test, based primarily on perceptual and motor responses. computed in the same manor as an IQ
developmentally appropriate practice
standards devised by the National association for the education of young children that specify program characteristics that meet the developmental and individual needs of young children of varying ages, based on both current research and the reseach and consenus of experts
expressive style
a style of early language learning in which toddlers use language mainly to talk about the feelings and needs of themselves and other people. Initial vocabulary emphasizes social formulas and pronouns
functional play
a type of play involving pleasurable motor activity with or without objects. enables infants and toddlers to practice sensorimotor schemes
home observation for measurement of the environment (HOME)
a checklist for gathering information about the quality of childrens home lives through observation and parental interview
intelligent quotient or IQ
a score that reflects an individuals performance on an intelligence test compared with the performances of other individuals of the same age
intentional, goal directed behavior
a sequence of actions in which schemes are deliberatly combined to solve a problem
joint attention
a state in which the child and the cargiver attent to the same object or event and the caregiver offers verbal information. Supports language development
language acquisition device (LAD)
in chomsky's theory, a biologcally based innate system for picking up language that permits children, no matter which language they hear, to speak in a rule oriented fashion as soon as they have learned enough words
long-term memory
in information processing, the part of the mental system that contains our permanent knowledge base
make-believe play
a type of play in which children pretend, acting out everyday imaginary activities
mental representation
internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate
mental strategies
in information processing, procedures that operate on and transform information, thereby increasing the efficiency and flexibility of thinking and the chances that information will be retained
object permanence
the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight
organization
in piaget's theory, the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system. In information processing, the memory strategy of grouping related terms
overextension
an early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too broadly - that is, to a wider collection fo objects and events than is appropriate.
production
in language development, the words and words combinations that children use.
recall
the type of memory that involves remembering something in the absense of perceptual support
recognition
the simplest form of memory, which involves noticing whether a new experience is identical or similar to a previous one
referential style
a style of early language learning in which toddlers use language mainly to label objects.
scheme
in piaget's theory, a specific structure, or organized way of making sense of experience, that changes with age
sensorimotor stage
piaget's first stage, during which toddlers "think" with their hands, eyes, ears and other sensorimotor equipment. SPans the first 2 years of life
sensory register
in information processing, that part of the mental system in which sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly before they decay or are transferred to working or short term memory
telegraphic speech
toddlers two word utterances that, like a telegram, leave out smaller and less important words
underextension
an early vocabulary error in which a rold is applied too narrowly, to a smaller number of objects and events than is appropriate
violation of expectation method
a method in which researchers habituate infants to a physical event and then determine whether they recover responsiveness to (look longer at) a possible event (a variation of the first event that conforms to physical laws) or an impossible event (a variation that violates physical laws). Recovery to the impossible event suggests awareness of that aspect of physical reality.
wernicke's area
a language structure located in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for interpreting language
working, or short term memory
in information processing, the part of the mental system where we actively "work" on a limited amount of information, applying mental strategies to ensure that it will be retained
zone of proximal development
in vygotsky's theory, a range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can accomplish with the help of more skilled partners
attachment
the strong, affectional tie that humans feel toward special people in their lives
attachment q-sort
an efficient method for asssesing the quality of the attachment bond, in which
autonomy vs shame and doubt
in eriksons theory, the psychological conflict of toddlerhood, which is resolved positively if parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices
avoidant attachment
the quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who usually are not distressed by parental seperation and who avoid the parent when she returns.
basic emotions
emotions that can be directly inferred from facial expressions, such as happiness, interest, suprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust.
basic trust vs mistrust
in eriksons theory, the psychological conflict of infancy, which is resolved positively if caregiving, especially during feeding, is sympathetic and loving
compliance
voluntary obedience to adult requests and commands
difficult child
a child whose temperament is characterized by irregular daily routines, slow acceptance of new experiences, and negative and intense reactions.
disorganized/disoriented attachment
the quality of insecure attachment characteristizing infants who respond in a confused, contradictory fashion when reunited with the parent.
easy child
a child whose temperament is characterized by establishment of regular routines in infancy, general cheerfulness, and easy adaption to new experiences
emotional self regulation
stategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
empathy
the abilit to understand anothers emotional state and feel with that person, or respond emotionally in a similar way
ethological theory of attachment
a theory, formulated by bowlby, that views the infants emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promoted survival
goodness of fit model
thomas and chess's model, which states that an effective match, or "good fit", between child rearing and a childs temperament leads to more adaptive functioning, whereas a "poor fit" results in adjustment problems
inhibited, or shy child
a child whose temperament is characterized by negative reaction to and withdrawal from novel stimuli. resembles slow to warm up child.
interactional synchrony
a sensitively tuned "emotional dance" in which the caregiver responds to infant signals in a well time, rhythmic, appropriate fashion and both partners match emtotional states, especially the positive ones
internal working model
a set of expectations derived from early caregiving experiences concerning the availability of attachment figures, their likelihood of providing support during times of stress, and the self's interaction with those figures. Becomes a model, or guide, for all future close relationships
i-self
a sense of self as agent, who is separate from the surrounding world and can control its own thoughts and actions.
me-self
a sense of self as an object of knowledge and evalutation. consists of all qualities that make the self unique, including physical characteristics, possesions, attitudes, beliefs, and personality traits
resistant attachment
the quality of insecure attachment characterizeding infants who remain close to the parent before departure, are usually distressed when she leaves, and mix clinginess with angry, resistive behavior when she returns.
secure attachment
the quality of attachment characterizing infants who are distressed by parental separation but are easily comforted by the parent when she returns
secure base
the infants use of the familiar caregiver as a point from which to explore the environment and to return to for emotional support
self conscious emotions
emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self. ex shame, guilt, envy, pride.
self control
the capacity to resist am impulse to engage in socially disapproved behavior
sensitive caregiving
caregiving involving prompt, consistent, and appropraite responding to infant signals
seperation anxiety
an infant's distressed reaction to the departure of the familiar caregiver
slow to warm up child
a child whose temperament is characterized by inactivity, mild, low key reactions to environmental stimuli, negative mood, and slow adjustment when faced with new experiences
social referencing
relying on a trusted persons emotional reaction to decide how to respond in an uncertain situation
social smile
the smile evoked by the stimulus of the human face. first appears between 6 and 10 weeks
strange situation
a procedure that takes the baby through 8 short episodes, in which brief seperations from, and reunions with the caregiver occur in an unfamiliar playroom. asseses quality of attachment bond
stranger anxiety
the infants expresssion of fear in response to unfamiliar adults. appears in many babies after 6 months of age
temperament
stable individual differences in the quality and intensity of emotional reaction, activity level, attention, and emotional self regulation
uninhibited, or sociable child
a child whose temperament is characterized by positive emotional reaction and approach to novel stimuli.