Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/1058

Click to flip

1058 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are some common descriptors for wines made from Syrah?
Eye: deep purple/ruby

Nose/Flavor: Blackberry, eucalyptus, wild herbs, violets, blackpepper, bacon fat, pepperoni, leather.

Palate Weight: medium to medium+ acidity. Medium tannin. Medium to full bodied. Medium to high alcohol.
What are the guidelines for matching a sweet dish with a sweet wine?
The sweetness of the wine must match or exceed the sweetness of the dish.
If a dish is more acidic than the wine, the wine will taste...
Flabby. The wine's acidity should match that of the dish.
What are some characteristics of wines made from Touriga Nacional?
Eye: Deep ruby color

Nose/Flavor: Mulberry, licorice, violets

Palate Weight: High acidity, high tannin
How does sweetness effect acidity?
It accentuates it
How does sweetness effect sweetness?
It reduces it
What do fat and protein effect in a wine?
They reduce the perception of tannin
How does salt effect tannin?
It reduces the perception of it
What are the best soils for Tempranillo?
Limestone and clay
What are the best soils for Syrah/Shiraz?
Rocky, well-drained
What are the best soils for Sangiovese?
Clay, limestone and shale
What are the best soils for Pinot Noir?
Limestone
What are the best soils for Nebbiolo?
Calcareous marl
What are the best soils for Merlot?
Clay and limestone. Tolerant of cool, wet soils.
What are the best soils for Grenache?
Rocky, well-drained.
What are the best soils for Gamay?
Sand, clay and granite.
What are the best soils for Cabernet Sauvignon?
Warm, heat-retaining gravel, terra rossa limestone, and well-drained alluvium.
What are the best soils for Cabernet Franc?
- Clay, gravel, sandstone

- Tolerant of cool, wet soils
What are the best soils for Sauvignon/Fume Blanc?
Chalk, gravel, loam, flint and marl.
What are the best soils for Riesling?
Slate and sandy loam. Best results from nutrient poor, heat-retaining soils.
What are the best soils for Pinot Gris/Grigio?
Warm, deep soils
What are the best soils for Muscat?
Very adaptable
What are the best soils for Gewurztraminer?
Deep, well-drained loam and clay
What are the best soils for Zinfandel?
Well-drained alluvium
What are the classic regions for Chardonnay?
France/ Burgundy/ Chablis, Meursault, Pouilly-Fuisse

US/ California/ Napa and Sonoma
What are the classic regions for Sauvignon Blanc?
France/ Loire Valley/ Sancerre, Pouilly-Fume.
Bordeaux/ Graves (blend with Semillon).

New Zealand/ South Island/ Marlborough.
What are the classic regions for Riesling?
Germany/ Mosel-Saar-Ruwer

France/ Alsace

Australia/ South Australia/ Clare Valley/ 60 miles north of Adelaide
What are the classic regions for Pinot Gris/Grigio?
France/ Alsace

Italy/ Trentino Alto-Adige
What are the classic regions for Gewurztraminer?
France/ Alsace
What are the classic regions for Gruner Veltliner?
Austria/ Wachau
What are the classic regions for Viognier?
France/ Northern Rhone/ Condrieu

USA/ California/ Central Coast
What are the classic regions for Chenin Blanc?
France/ Loire Valley/ Touraine/ Vouvray, Savennieres

South Africa/ Stellenbosch, Paarl
What are the classic regions for Melon de Bourgogne?
France/ Loire Valley/ Pays Nantais/ Muscadet, Muscadet Sevre-et-Maine, Muscadet Coteaux de la Loire, Muscadet Cotes de Grandlieu (as the wine known as Muscadet).
What are the classic regions for Albarinho?
Spain/ Galicia/ Rias-Baixas

Portugal/ (as Vinho Verde) Alvarinho, Loureiro, Trajadura
What are the classic regions for Pinot Noir?
France/ Burgundy/ Cotes d'Or/ Cotes de Nuits, Cote de Beaune

USA/ California/ Sonoma, Central Coast. Oregon/ Willamette Valley, Dundee Hills

New Zealand/ South Island/ Central Otago
What are the classic regions for Gamay Noir?
France/ Burgundy/ Beaujolais
What are the classic regions for Nebbiolo?
Italy/ Piedmont/ Barolo, Barbaresco
What are the classic regions for Sangiovese?
Italy/ Tuscany/ Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino
What are the classic regions for Corvina, Rondinella, and Molinara?
Italy/ Veneto/ Valpolicella
What are the classic regions for Syrah/Shiraz?
France/ Northern Rhone/ Hermitage, Crozes-Hermitage, Cornas, Cote Rotie. Southern Rhone/ Cotes du Rhone (as a blend with Grenache)

USA/ California/ Sonoma and Napa

Australia/ South Australia/ Barossa, Mclaren Vale
What are the classic regions for Zinfandel?
USA/ California/ Napa County. Sonoma County/ Dry Creek Valley
What are the classic regions for Cabernet Sauvignon?
France/ Bordeaux/ Left Bank/ Haut-Medoc/ St.-Estephe, Pauillac, St.-Julien, Margaux (as a blend with Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petite Verdot, and Malbec.)

USA/ California/ Napa, Alexander Valley
What are the classic regions for Cabernet Franc?
France/ Loire Valley/ Touraine/ Chinon

France/ Bordeaux/ Right Bank/ St.-Emilion, Pomerol (as a blend with Merlot).
What are the classic regions for Merlot?
France/ Bordeaux/ Right Bank/ St.-Emilion, Pomerol (as a blend with Cabernet Franc)

USA/ California/ Napa
What are the classic regions for Grenache?
France/ Southern Rhone/ Gigondas, Chateauneuf-du-Pape (as a blend with Syrah, Mourvedre, Cinsault)
What are the classic regions for Tempranillo?
Spain/ Rioja
What are the classic regions for Malbec?
Argentina/ Mendoza

France/ Southwest/ Cahors (as a minimum 70% blend)
What are the classic regions for Pinotage?
South Africa/ Stellenbosch, Paarl
A refractometer measures...?
Sugar levels
What imparts more flavor to a wine, new oak or old oak?
New oak
What is MLF?
Malolactic Fermentation. The conversion of harsh malic acid into soft lactic acid.
What are the three byproducts of fermentation?
Alcohol
Carbon dioxide
Heat
What are the two rose wine-making processes?
1) Saignee; allowing short skin contact to "stain" the wine.

2) Blending; adding small amounts of red wine to white wine.
What is Saccharomyces Cerevisiae?
The most common species of wine yeast.
What are the four main methods of sparkling wine production?
1) Methode Traditional or Methode Champenoise.

2) Charmat Method, Tank Method, or Cuve Close.

3) Transfer Method.

4) Bicycle Pump or Coca-Cola method.
What is must weight?
The measure of sugar content in unfermented grape juice.
What is Pigeage?
Punching down the cap
What is Remontage?
Pumping over the cap
What are a few things used in fining wine?
- Egg whites (especially in Oregon)

- Clay, Bentonite

- Pig's Blood (especially in southern France)
What is the cause of VA (volatile acidity)?
Bacteria
What is a Chai?
A barrel aging house. Especially in Bordeaux where very few Chateaux have underground cellars.
To which wine does the statement, "Cat's pee on a gooseberry bush", most belong to?
New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc
What do Furmint, Riesling, and Chenin Blanc all have in common?
They are all aromatic whites
What are the four sweetness levels of Madeira?
-Sercial
-Verdelho
-Bual
-Malmsey
What Christian order was responsible for the proliferation of vineyards in Burgundy in the 1100's?
Cistercian Monks
Approximately when were the first vines cultivated for wine production?
5,000 BC
Where were the first vines cultivated for wine production?
Transcaucasia/Mesopotamia
To grow, a grapevine must have how many hours of sunshine and how many millimeters of rain?
- 1500 hours

- 700 mm
A fundamental difference between red wine production and white wine production is when the pressing is done. True or False?
True. White wine is pressed before fermentation. Red wine is pressed after fermentation.
Between which two latitudes do grapes grow best?
30 and 50
What is the first thing to smell for when "nosing" a wine in a tasting situation?
Flaws and faults
The practice of turning grapes into wine is called...?
Vinification
What louse and its eponymous disease completely decimated Europe's vineyards in the late 1800's?
Phylloxera
What are three major types of wine labels?
- Regional

- Varietal

- Branded
What is a fortified wine?
A wine that has extra alcohol added to it
Name a few fortified wines.
- Sherry
- Port
- Madeira
Name two fruits commonly associated with Sauvignon Blanc.
- Grapefruit
- Lime
- Gooseberry
Is Sauvignon Blanc more likely to see stainless steel fermentation in Marlborough or Graves?
Marlborough
In the US, what is the minimum percentage of a varietal that a varietally labeled wine must contain?
75%
In the US, what is the minimum percentage from a given vintage that a vintage-labeled wine must contain?
95%
What is the principal flavor note of a wine that has been through MLF?
Buttery
What is the chemical compound that causes a wine to taste buttery after MLF?
Diacetyl
Grapes with higher sugar contents will produce wines with higher...
Alcohol
Grapes with high sugar content are more likely from what type of climate?
Hotter
Chardonnay is susceptible to an early...
Frost
What two things must be on every bottle of wine?
- Alcohol % by volume

- The volume of the container
When tasting, what are the F.E.W.?
- Fruit
- Earth
- Wood
What is the scientific name of Noble Rot?
Botrytis Cinerea
What are the two main acids we taste in a wine?
- Tartaric acid

- Malic Acid
Which vinification technique causes a Chardonnay to develope "toasty" characteristics?
Oak Aging
What is the one exception to the rule that a wine's body must match the food's body when pairing the two?
Intensity. A lighter bodied wine with high intensity will still pair well with a fuller-bodied dish.
Which white wine has lower acidity and higher alcohol as well as a "lychee nut" fruit aroma?
Gewurztraminer
What is the proper serving temperature of light white wines and sparkling wines?
41 to 47 degrees F.
What is the proper serving temperature for full white and light red wines?
44 to 54 degrees F.
What is the proper serving temperature for medium to full red wines?
55 to 65 degrees F.
What is the proper serving temperature for dessert wines?
41 to 47 degrees F.
Why are dessert wines served at lower temperatures?
To showcase their acidity.
What is the single most important aspect to consider when serving Champagne?
Safety!
At what point while opening a bottle of sparkling wine does it become the most dangerous?
After untwisting the cage!
Where should a bottle of sparkling wine be pointed while opening it?
At a 45 degree angle AWAY from people.
How does one ensure control of the cork when opening sparkling wine?
Place your thumb firmly over the top of the cork.
What are two reasons for decanting a wine?
1) To remove sediment.

2) To allow the wine to "open up".

3) To adjust the temperature of the wine.

4) For presentation/show.
What are "white diamonds" for on the underside of a cork or in the bottle?
Tartaric crystals. Harmless accumulations from the wine having been exposed to low temperatures.
Muscat and Pinot Gris can be found as both a white and a black grape. True or False?
True
Name the four main grapes of Burgundy.
Pinot Noir
Chardonnay
Gamay
Aligote
What are the characteristics of a "corked" wine?
Wet cardboard, moldy newspaper, sweaty socks, damp basement.
What features of Cabernet Sauvignon make it an ideal candidate for aging?
- High tannins
- High acidity
- Good fruit concentration
What type of soil in Germany gives Riesling its greatest expression?
Slate
How are the aromatic features of Muscat retained during primary fermentation?
By controlling a cooler, longer fermentation.
What part of the fermentation process is traditionally inhibited in Gewurztraminer after alcoholic fermentation?
Malolactic Fermentation
To what is Pinot Noir most susceptible?
Frost
Despite all the professionalism of the sommelier, what careless little error most often threatens to discredit the sommelier when assisting a guest with the wine list?
Spelling mistakes
(Seriously, just go over the list a couple times and have someone else do the same, before you print it).
Which grape is more acidic, Riesling or Gewurztraminer?
Riesling
When does the fortification take place in port production as opposed to sherry production?
Port is fortified before fermentation has completed. Sherry is fortified after fermentation has completed.
In their youth, highly tannic wines like Cabernet Sauvignon, Nebbiolo, and Sangiovese Grosso can be...

a. Cloying
b. Hot
c. Astringent
d. Flabby
c. Astringent
Name some wood-aged styles of port.
- Tawny
- Ruby
- LBV
- White Port
- Colheita
Name some bottle-aged styles of port.
- Vintage
- "Crusted"
- Single Quinta
Why do the makers of screwcap enclosures contend that their wines can stand upright on a shelf unlike bottles with corks?
Bottles with corks need to lay flat so the cork stays wet and swollen, sealing out air. Without a cork to need swelling, screwcaps need not lay flat.
Methode Traditionelle applies to which of the following wines?

a. Sekt
b. Muscat de Beaumes de Venise
c. Cava
d. Barolo
e. Asti Spumante
c. Cava
What is the proper cellar temperature and humidity?
- 55 degrees F.

- 75% humidity
What grape variety is used to make Beaujolais?
Gamay
Merlot is the prominant grape variety in what French Region?
Right Bank Bordeaux
How does the color of white wine change as it ages?
It becomes darker; yellow and eventually amber
What are the main grape varieties in Champagne?
- Chardonnay

- Pinot Noir

- Pinot Meunier
What are the main grapes for Sherry?
- Palomino

- Pedro Ximenez (PX)

- Muscatelle
What are the 6 main grapes for Port?
- Touriga Nacional
- Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
- Touriga Francesa
- Tinta Barroca
- Tinta Amarela
- Tinta Cao
What are the 5 main grapes of red Bordeaux?
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Merlot
- Cabernet Franc
- Petite Verdot
- Malbec
What is the sixth grape variety of red Bordeaux, rarely used anymore?
Carmenere
What are the 3 main grapes of white Bordeaux?
- Savignon Blanc
- Semillon
- Muscadelle
Where does the secondary fermentation take place when using the Methode Traditionelle to make sparkling wine?
In the bottle
List 2 wines that are at their best when young and fresh.
- Beaujolais Nouveau

- Sauvignon Blanc
What are two requirements for a wine to age well?
- High Acidity

- High Tannin

- Lower Alcohol

- High Fruit Concentration
List 3 wines that age well.
- Fine red Bordeaux

- Barolo

- Chateauneuf-du-Pape

- Vintage Champagne
What are a few factors that can affect the way a wine ages in the cellar?
- Light

- Humidity

- Temperature

- Vibration
What is the Italian vine recently found to be related to Zinfandel?
Primativo
What is the name of the boats traditionally used to ferry port down the river Duoro?
Barcos Riveros
What 3 elements are important for good quality soil?
- Drainage/Depth

- Poor Nutrients

- Good Heat Retention

- Lack of Surface Nitrogen (causes roots to grow horizontally instead of downward).
How does a winemaker control MLF?
- Use of Sulpher

- Temperature Control
When does MLF occur in the fermentation process?
After primary fermentation
Which white wine is particularly suited for MLF?
Chardonnay
In Champagne, the color in most rose wines is acquired by using which method?
Blending
What are the three major ways of controlling oxidation in the winery?
- Controlling anaerobic conditions; keeping everything well sealed, topping-up barrels etc.

- Use of Sulpher

- Temperature Control
What is the main purpose behind proper service temperatures in all wines?
To obtain the most ideal balance between each of the wine's qualities.
What is the main reason for pruning vines?
To control yield
If you taste a "doughy" or "yeasty" note in a still wine, what vinification method was used?
- Aging on the lees

- Batonnage (stirring of the lees)
In the Northern Hemisphere, what process of the vine is endangered by March frosts?
Budbreak
What are phenolic compounds?
Tannins and pigments
A young red Bordeaux served at 50 degrees F. will probably come off as harsh or astringent. Why?
Hard tannins and high acidity
What is a pneumatic press?
An air-filled bladder or air-bag inflated to perform the pressing of the grapes.
What does the term "maceration" refer to?
The "soaking" of the grape skins in the grape juice.
Gobelet and Bilateral Cordon are examples of what type of vine-training?
Spur
Single Guyot and Double Guyot are examples of what type of vine-training?
Cane
What is the single most important factor affecting a grape's sugar, and subsequent potential alcohol?
Sunlight
Battonage is French for...
Stirring the lees
What is the French term for "pumping over the cap"?
Remontage
What is the French term for "punching down the cap"?
Pigeage
Generally speaking, and subject to obvious debate, what is the best wine in the world?
Domaine Romanee-Conti (DRC)
Generally speaking, and subject to obvious debate, what is the greatest wine ever made?
1945 Chateau d'Yquem
Name the main grape varieties grown on the Left Bank of Bordeaux.
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Merlot
- Cabernet Franc
- Petite Verdot
- Malbec
Name the main grape varieties grown on the Right Bank of Bordeaux.
- Merlot
- Cabernet Franc
What is the French word for "varietal"?
Cepage
What 2 organizations regulate wine in France?
- INAO

- SdRdF
What are the respective mandates of the INAO and the SdRdF?
- The INAO sets the regulations for wine in France.
- The SdRdF polices those regulations.
Name 3 of the 6 major wine districts in Burgundy?
- Chablis
- Cote de Nuits
- Cote de Beaune
- Chalonaise
- Maconnaise
- Beaujolais
Chablis utilizes Mechanical Harvesting and Stainless Steel aging. True or False?
True
Name 4 areas of wine production/growing law which the AOC system controls to prevent fraud.
- Labeling
- Yield
- Varietals
- Harvesting Techniques
- Pruning
- Chaptalization Regulations
- Minimum Potential Alcohol
- Level of Ripeness
- Potential Oaking
Name 3 viticultural hazards for Burgundy.
- Hail
- Frost
- Fungal disease due to rain at harvest
Why is it important to study vintage in Bordeaux?
The weather varies greatly
Of the following vintages, which 2 are considered to be the best for Bordeaux? 1982, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1991, 1994, 2001.
1982 and 1990
What are classic dishes for the Chablis region?
- Oysters

- Escargo (snails)
What are the classic dishes for the Cote d'Or?
- Coq au Vin

- Duck
What are the classic dishes for Bordeaux?
- Lamb

- Beef

- Bordelais sauce
What was the Clissification of Bordeaux Chateaux for the Left Bank based upon?
Prices paid over the previous one hundred years
What year was the Classification of Bordeaux?
1855
What is the major beneficial mold found in Sauternes, Barsac, and Cadillac in the southern Left Bank?
Botrytis Cinerea
What are the predominant differences between New World and Old World wines?
New World wines are generally "fruit forward" while Old World wines are more earth noted
Name 2 of the 4 Departments of Burgundy.
- Yonne

- Cote d'Or

- Soane et Loire

- Rhone
How many vineyards have the name "Montrachet" in them in the Cote de Beaune?
5
A wine with an alcohol level of 13% is considered to be at what level, low, medium, or high?
Medium
New Zealand's Central Otago is best known for what grape?
Pinot Noir
What are the 5 vineyards in the Cote de Beaune that have the name Montrachet in them?
1) Le Montrachet
2) Chevalier-Montrachet
3) Batard-Montrachet
4) Criots-Batard-Montrachet
5) Bienvenues-Batard-Montrachet
Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, and Chardonnay from Chablis are all considered to have what level of natural acidity?
High
Cabernet Sauvignon, Nebbiolo, and Sangiovese are all considered to have what level of natural acidity?
High
Chardonnay from California and Australia, as well as Gewurztraminer and Marsanne are all considered to have what level of natural acidity?
Low
Merlot, Tempranillo, and Grenache are all considered to have what level of natural acidity?
Low
Pinot Blanc, Muscat, and Viognier are all considered to have what level of natural acidity?
Medium
Pinot Noir, Barbera, Gamay Noir, Cabernet Franc, and Syrah are all considered to have what level of natural acidity?
Medium
What are a few white wine grapes with medium natural acidity?
- Pinot Blanc
- Muscat
- Viognier
What are a few red wine grapes with medium natural acidity?
- Pinot Noir
- Barbera
- Gamay Noir
- Cabernet Franc
- Syrah
What are a few red wine grapes with high natural acidity?
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Sangiovese
- Nebbiolo
What are a few white wine grapes with high natural acidity?
- Riesling
- Chardonnay (from Chablis)
- Sauvignon Blanc
What are a few white wine grapes that have low natural acidity?
- Chardonnay (from California and Australia)
- Gewurztraminer
- Marsanne
What is the classic region for Syrah in Australia?
South Australia/ Barrosa Valley
What is QmP?
- Qualitatswein mit Pradikat

- German wine quality classification based on sugar level at harvest.
List the QmP levels in order.
- Kabinett
- Spatlese
- Auslese
- Beerenauslese
- Eiswein
- Trockenbeerenauslese
What is QbA?
Qualitatswein bestimmter Anbaugebeit
How many Anbaugebeit are specified for QbA?
13
What is a Bereich?
In Germany, a wine district within an Anbaugebiet
What is a Grosslage?
A German collective of vineyards
What is a Einzellage?
A German vineyard
In German wine law, what ranks higher, QmP or QbA?
QmP
In German wine law, what are the 3 categories defining wine quality?
1) DTW

2) QbA

3) QmP
What is the highest category in Italian wine law?
DOCG
Super Tuscans are labeled under which Italian wine category?
IGT
What is the lowest level of Italian wine categories?
Vino de Tavola (VDT)
What are a few examples of aromas and flavors that are a result of "Bouquet" on red wine?
- Leather
- Licorice
- Coffee
- Dried fruit
- Cedar
- Winter/Christmas spices
What are some effects of aging on red wine?
- Bright, fresh colors succomb to browning
- Tannins soften
- Sediment precipitates
- Volume decreases
- The wine acquires "Bouquet"
What are some effects of aging on white wine?
- The color darkens to gold and then amber
- Volume decreases
- The wine acquires "Bouquet"
What are a few examples of aromas and flavors that are a result of "Bouquet" on white wine?
- Baked apple
- Caramel
- Winter/Christmas spice
- Wet wool
Why is a high fruit flavor concentration a necessity for a wine to age well?
The fruit characteristics need to be concentrated enough to survive the breakdown of time.
For your wine cellar, if given the choice of high humidity vs. low humidity, which is better?
High
When designing a wine cellar, why is it important to avoid certain wood preservatives?
A lot of them can foster the occurance of TCA
What is the name of the small air-filled space in a bottle of wine between the wine and the cork called?
Ullage
Why is it important to store bottles on their side?
To keep the cork in contact with the wine so it doesn't dry out.
What is "topping up"?
Replacing lost wine in a bottle or barrel.
Name the four grape varieties labeled Grand Cru in Alsace.
- Riesling
- Gewurztraminer
- Muscat
- Pinot Gris
In Alsace, what is an important commonality between Pinot Gris, Gewurztraminer, Muscat, and Riesling?
The are all allowed for Alsace Grand Cru
What is the fifth grape allowed for Grand Cru Alsace?
Sylvaner
What is the one exception vineyard allowing Sylvaner for Grand Cru Alsace?
Zotzenberg
What are the four AOC regions in the Loire Valley?
1) Pays Nantais
2) Anjou-Saumur
3) Touraine
4) Le Centre (Central Vineyards)
What is Anjou-Saumur?
An AOC region in the Loire Valley
What is Pay Nantais?
The AOC region on the western edge of the Loire Valley
What is Touraine?
An AOC region in the Loire Valley
What is Le Centre?
The Central Vineyards; the AOC region in the eastern Loire Valley
What are the tannin levels of Pinot Noir?
Medium
What are the tannin levels of Cabernet Sauvignon?
High
What are the tannin levels of Merlot?
Medium
What are the tannin levels of Cabernet Franc?
Medium+
What are the tannin levels of Nebbiolo?
High
What are the tannin levels of Sangiovese?
Medium+ / High
What is the major sweet wine AC of the Rhone Valley?
Muscat de Beaume de Venise
Where is the AC Muscat de Beaume de Venise?
France/ Rhone Valley/ Southern Rhone
Where is Tavel?
France/ Southern Rhone/ southwest of Chateauneuf-du-Pape
What major change has taken place in the Languedoc to increase its world wide image?
- Foreign investment
- More concern for quality over quantity
What are anaerobic conditions?
Those without oxygen
What are three important elements of the climate in Alsace?
1) Long growing season
2) Rainshadow behind the Vosges Mountains
3) Lots of sun
Where are the Vosges Mountains?
France/ Alsace
Name two sparkling wines from Italy.
- Prosecco
- Moscato d'Asti
- Asti
- Franciacorta
What do Franciacorta, Prosecco, and Asti all have in common?
They are all sparkling wines from Italy
What is chaptalization?
Adding sugar to the must to increase alcohol
What is the term for adding sugar to the must to increase alcohol?
Chaptalization
What are the four levels of quality under Italian wine law?
- Vino de Tavola
- IGT
- DOC
- DOCG
Which category is higher, DOC or IGT?
DOC
What particular climatic element must be dealt with in the Rhone Valley?
The Mistral Winds
Which part of the Rhone Valley is most affected by the Mistral Winds?
The Northern
Of Barolo and Barbaresco, which is considered feminine and which masculine?
Barolo - Masculine
Barbaresco - Feminine
What percentage of a single grape variety must be used when varietally labeled in Alsace?
100%
Where is St-Emilion?
France/ Bordeaux/ Right Bank/ bordering to the east with Pomerol
Where is Muscadet-sur-Lie?
France/ Loire Valley/ Pays Nantais
Where is Entre-deux-Mers?
France/ Bordeaux/ between the rivers, south of Pomerol and St.-Emilion and north of Sauternes and Barsac
Where is St. Joseph?
France/ Northern Rhone Valley
Where is St.-Julien?
France/ Bordeaux/ Left bank/ Haut-Medoc
Where is Chinon?
France/ Loire Valley/ Touraine
Where is Sancerre?
France/ Loire Valley/ Central Vineyards
Where is Cornas?
France/ Northern Rhone Valley
Where is Cote-Rotie?
France/ Northern Rhone Valley
What does Cote-Rotie translate to?
Roasted Slope
Where is Pauillac?
Frence/ Bordeaux/ Left Bank/ Haut-Medoc/ between St.-Julien and St.-Estephe
Where is Pomerol?
France/ Bordeaux/ Right Bank/ bordering west of St-Emilion
Where is Gigondas?
France/ Southern Rhone Valley/ bordering northeast from Vacqueyras
Where is Bonnezeaux?
France/ Loire Valley/ Anjou-Saumer/ Coteaux du Layon
Name the three most important grape varieties used throughout the Loire Valley.
1) Chenin Blanc
2) Cabernet France
3) Sauvignon Blanc
What is the most planted grape in the Loire Valley?
Grolo
Chenin Blanc, Cabernet France, and Sauvignon Blanc are the main grapes of what region?
France/ Loire Valley
In terms of Valpolocella, what is the difference between Amarone della Valpolicella and Recioto della Valpolicella?
Recioto is sweet while Amarone is dry
What are the three main grapes of Valpolicella?
- Corvina
- Rondinella
- Molinara
Where are the grapes Corvina, Rondinella, and Molinara most famously used?
Italy/ Veneto/ Valpolicella
In Chianti, what does "Governo" mean?
A vinification technique used in Italy's Tuscany area whereby the must from grapes previously set aside to dry and shrivel is added to already fermented wine. Similar to the "Ripasso" process.
What makes a Tuscan wine a Super-Tuscan?
It doesn't follow DOC rules; the use of international grape varieties
What is the name of the departement that houses the entire Bordeaux?
Gironde
What is the famous soil of the Touraine district in the Loire Valley?
Tuffeau
What is Tuffeau?
Volcanic, boiled chalk
Brunello di Montalcino must be made from 100% Sangiovese. True or False?
True
When should Muscadet be consumed, young or bottle aged?
Young
What does "Sur Lie" mean?
On the lees
A wine that has been aged "Sur Lie" has probably seen what vinification technique?
Batonnage
What is Merlot susceptible to?
- Rot
- Frost
What are some features of the Merlot grape?
- Large Berries
- Loose Bunches
- Thin Skin
- Higher yielding than Cabernet Sauvignon
What are Merlot's common descriptors by appearance?
Medium to deep ruby
What are Merlot's common descriptors on the nose?
Plum, red and black fruits, toffee, chocolate, herbs, cedar-box
What are the common descriptors for Merlot on the palate?
- Medium acidity
- Medium tannin
- Medium to high alcohol
- Medium to full body
What are the common feautures of the Cabernet Franc grape?
- Large berries
- Loose bunches
- Buds early
- Ripens early
- Yields higher than Cabernet Sauvignon
What are some Merlot food pairings?
- Grilled red meat
- Capon (a "snipped" rooster)
- Lamb
- Beef
What are the susceptibilities of Cabernet Franc in the vineyard?
Downy and powdery mildew
What are the common descriptors for Cabernet Franc in appearance?
Medium to deep ruby and purple
What are the common descriptors for Cabernet Franc on the nose?
Spice, herbaceous, bell pepper, raspberry, milk chocolate, candied fruit, tart raspberry
What are the important sub-regions of the Loire Valley for Cabernet Franc?
- Chinon
- Saumer-Champigny
- Bourgueil
What are some secondary regions for Cabernet Franc?
- Northeastern Italy
- Niagara, Canada
- New York State
- Washington State
What are some of the common descriptors for Cabernet Franc on the palate?
- Medium to high acidity
- Medium tannin
- Light to medium body
- Medium alcohol
What are some common food pairings for Cabernet Franc?
- Grilled meats
- Duck Pate
- Steak with peppercorn sauce
What are some features of Zinfandel in the vineyard?
- Large bunches
- Early ripener
- Bunches ripen unevenly
- Potential to build very high sugar levels
- Potential for very high yields
- Raisinates due to coulure
What are some susceptibilities of Zinfandel on the vine?
- Bunch rot
- Raisining
What are some common descriptors of Zinfandel in appearance?
Medium to deep purple/ruby
What are some common descriptors for Zinfandel on the nose?
Blueberry, cherry pie filling, jam, spice, raisins, black tea
What are some common descriptors for Zinfandel on the palate?
- Low to medium acidity
- Medium tannin
- Very full-bodied
- High alcohol
- Rich and fruity
What are some good food pairings for Zinfandel?
- Duck
- Grilled game
What are some features of Gamay grapes?
- Purple in color
- Medium-sized berries
- Yield is moderate to high
What is Gamay susceptible to in the vineyard?
Gray rot
What are a few important sub-regions of Beaujolais?
Moulin-a-Vents
Morgon
St. Amour
What are the common descriptors for Gamay in appearance?
Medium garnet to bright fuchsia
What are some common descriptors of Gamay on the nose?
Flowers, candy, red fruit, bubblegum, cherry, sweet herbs, licorice, milk chocolate, chalky notes
What are some common descriptors of Gamay on the palate?
- Medium to high acidity
- Low tannin
- Light body
- Medium alcohol
What are some Gamay food pairings?
- Dried sausage
- Ham
- Chicken liver pate
In sparkling wine production, what is another term for the combination method?
Transfer method
What is "assemblage"?
A blend of wines from different varieties, vineyards, and vintages
What is tirage?
- Liqeuer de Tirage

- A mixture of yeast and sugar added to a blend

- Especially in Champagne where it causes the secondary fermentation
What happens during "Remuage"?
- Riddling to clarify wine
- Bottles are moved from horizontal to vertical position
- Bottle is eventually upside down
- Yeast lees are collected in the bottle neck
- Six week process by hand
- Three days by machine
What are the giant, box-like riddling machines called?
Gyropaletes
What does "Degorgement" do?
Disgorgement removes lees from neck of bottle

- Bottle neck is dipped in freezing solution
- Lees are frozen solid
- Bottle cap is removed
- CO2 pushes frozen lees out of bottle
What is another term for "Dosage"?
Liqueur d'Expedition
What does the "Dosage" do?
- Replaces wine lost during disgorgement
- Determines final balance of blend
Where is Cava?
Spain/ Catalunya/ west-southwest of Barcelona
What grapes are used for Cava?
- Macabeo
- Parellada
- Xarel-lo
What method of sparkling wine production is used in Cava?
The Traditional Method
What is a common aromatic note of Cava that can distinguish it from other wines?
A "rubberband" or "racquet ball" smell
What is a common aromatic feature of South African Cap Classique sparkling wines?
Smokiness
What are a couple features of wines from the Tank Method of sparkling wine production that differ from those of the Methode Traditionelle?
The are fruitier with larger bubbles
Most German Sekt is produced using which sparkling wine method?
Tank/Charmat Method
A lot of Prosecco is produced using which sparkling wine method?
Tranfer Method
What is the name of the spirit added to port and sherry to fortify them?
Aguardiente
Where are the vineyards that provide for Port?
Portugal/ Douro Valley
What is the soil type in the Douro Valley?
Schist; soft, crumbly slate. Baked clay.
What are some characteristics of wine made from Touriga Nacional?
- Deep ruby color
- High acidity
- High tannin
- Notes of mulberry, licorice, violets
What are "Lagares"?
Shallow cement troughs used for crushing port grapes by foot
Port is aged in neutral wood. True or False?
True
What are some great vintages for port?
1997, 1994, 1985, 1977, 1966, 1947
Who declares the quality of a vintage for port, the grower or the producer?
Producer
What is LBV port? Also list some details about it.
- Late-Bottled Vintage
- Moderate quality
- Grapes from a single vintage
- Lesser vintages, vineyards and grape varieties
- Ages 4-6 years in wood
What are some details about ruby port?
- Basic port
- Blend of vintages
- Medium ruby color
What are some details about tawny port?
- Aged in wood for many years
- Usually a blend of vintages
- Pale red/brown color
- The more browning, the older the wine
- "10 year old" and "20 year old" most common
- Flavors of hazelnuts, spice and dried fruits
- Colheita
- Vintage dated tawny
Do barrel-aged ports improve in bottle?
No
What do Vintage, Single Quinta, and Crusted Ports all have in common?
They are all bottle-aged styles
What is VDN?
- Vin Doux Naturels
- Fortified wines
What grape variety is used in Banyuls for VDN?
Grenache
Where is Banyuls?
France/ Southwestern France/ Roussillon
What are the four styles of Madeira?
- Sercial
- Verdelho
- Bual
- Malmsey
What are the styles of Madeira named for?
Their corresponding grapes
What is a well-known fortified wine of Australia?
Rutherglen Muscat
What is a slang term for Liqueur Muscats in Australia?
Stickies
What do Sercial and Verdelho have in common?
They are both styles of Madeira
What is Estufagem?
- An important aspect of Madeira production
- A process of slow "baking" that caramelizes and oxidizes the wine
What is Albariza?
The chalky soil of Jerez, Spain
What is the most commonly used grape variety for Sherry production?
Palomino
What are a couple other grape varieties used in Sherry production?
- Pedro Ximenez (PX)
- Moscatel
What grows on top of sherry wine as it ages?
Flor
In Sherry production, how is the growth of flor avoided?
Fortifying the wine to at least 18%
In what is Sherry aged?
A Solera
What flavor notes does flor add to Sherry?
Pungent notes of blanched almonds, brine and bitter herbs
Generally, how is Oloroso different from other styles of Sherry?
It has no flor
What is a Solera, generally speaking?
A system of fractional blending
What are some characteristics of Fino Sherry?
- Pale in color
- Strong flor flavor
- Dry
- Light to medium body
- Flavors of brine and almonds
- Alcohol around 15%
What are some characteristics of Manzanilla style Sherry?
- Fino-style
- Aged in seaside location (Sanlucar)
- Very pale color
- Intense flor flavor
- Medium body
- Alcohol around 15%
What are some characteristics of Oloroso Sherry?
- Fortified to kill off flor
- Oxidised
- Dark brown color
- Flavors of nuts, raisins and baking spice
- May be dry or sweet
- Alcohol around 18%
What are some characteristics of Amontillado Sherry?
- Aged fino
- Flor has died away
- light, nutty flavors
- Dry or sweet
What are some food pairings for Fino-style Sherry?
- Sardines
- Almonds
- Olives
What are some food-pairings for Oloroso?
- Deep fried foods
- Roasted nuts
- Consomme
What are some features of Syrah in the vineyard?
- Buds late
- Ripens early
- Short growing period
- Medium-sized berries
- Tight bunches
- Moderate yields
What are some susceptibilities of Syrah?
- Gray rot
- Bunch rot
- otherwise fairly resistant to disease
What are the soil-types for Syrah?
- Loose, rocky well-draining soils
- Granite
- Terre rossa
In order to ripen, Syrah needs...
Warmth
What are a couple important sub-regions of the Rhone Valley for Syrah?
- Hermitage
- Cote Rotie
- Chateauneuf-du-Pape
- Gigondas
What are the common descriptors of Syrah in appearance?
Deep ruby/purple
What are the common descriptors for Syrah on the nose?
Blackberry, eucalyptus, wild herbs, violets, black pepper, bacon fat, leather
What are the common descriptors for Syrah on the palate?
- Medium to high acidity
- Medium tannin
- Medium to full body
- Medium to high alcohol
What are some common food-pairings for Syrah?
- Wild boar
- Hearty stew with bacon
- Game with berry sauce
- Lamb
What are some features of Grenache in the vineyard?
- Large, loose bunches
- Thin skins
- Buds early
- Ripens late
- Drought resistant
- Long, hot growing season
What are the susceptibilities of Grenache?
- Downy mildew
- Bunch rot
- Coulure
What are a couple sub-regions of the Rhone Valley for Grenache?
- Chateauneuf-du-Pape
- Cote du Rhone
What are some food-pairings for Grenache?
- Rabbit
- Chicken
- Meats flavored with Herbes de Provence
What are the common descriptors of Grenache in appearance?
Pale to medium garnet
What are the common descriptors of Grenache on the nose?
Raspberry, stewed fruit, sweet herbs, earth, white pepper, black olives
What are the common descriptors of Grenache on the palate?
- Low to medium acidity
- Low to medium tannin
- Full body
- Medium to high alcohol
What are some features of Tempranillo in the vineyard?
- Medium-sized berries
- Large bunches
- Thick skins
- Ripens early
What are the Spanish terms denoting length of aging?
- Crianza
- Reserva
- Gran Reserva
What are the important regions for Tempranillo in Spain?
- Rioja
- Ribera del Duero
What are the general differences in Tempranillo from Rioja and Ribera del Duero?
Rioja makes lighter wines, Ribera del Duero makes wines with more muscle
What are the common descriptors of Tempranillo in appearance?
Pale to moderate garnet/ruby
What are the common descriptors of Tempranillo on the nose?
Strawberry, spice, vanilla, mocha, plum, toast, coconut
What are the common descriptors of Tempranillo on the palate?
- Low to medium acidity
- Medium tannin
- Medium body
- Medium to high alcohol
What are some food-pairings for Tempranillo?
- Grilled meats
- Lentil soup
- Roasted Cornish game hen
What are some differences in Sangiovese Piccolo and Sangiovese Grosso?
Sangiovese Piccolo: small berries, tight bunches

Sangiovese Grosso: Large berries, loose bunches, late ripening
What are the important regions for Sangiovese in Italy?
- Chianti
- Brunello di Montalcino
What are the common descriptors for Sangiovese in appearance?
Medium garnet/yellow
What are the common descriptors for Sangiovese on the nose?
Floral, leather, earth, red fruit, violets, herbs, orange oil
What are the common descriptors for Sangiovese on the palate?
- High acidity
- Moderate to high tannin
- Medium body
- Medium to high alcohol
What are some common food-pairings for Sangiovese?
- Tomato-based sauces
- Smoked meats
- Veal chops
- Braised beef
- Wild boar
What are some features of the Nebbiolo grape in the vineyard?
- Medium-sized berries
- Large bunches
- Early budding
- Late ripening
- Many different clones
- Requires a long growing period
What are some susceptibilities of Nebbiolo?
- Coulure
- Powdery mildew
- Generally resistant to other hazards
What is "Nebbia"?
The fog that occurs in the Piedmont area, after which the Nebbiolo grape was named
Should Nebbiolo be consumed young or aged?
Aged
What are some common food-pairings for Sangiovese?
- Tomato-based sauces
- Smoked meats
- Veal chops
- Braised beef
- Wild boar
What are some features of the Nebbiolo grape in the vineyard?
- Medium-sized berries
- Large bunches
- Early budding
- Late ripening
- Many different clones
- Requires a long growing period
What are some susceptibilities of Nebbiolo?
- Coulure
- Powdery mildew
- Generally resistant to other hazards
What is "Nebbia"?
The fog that occurs in the Piedmont area, after which the Nebbiolo grape was named
Should Nebbiolo be consumed young or aged?
Aged
What are some common food-pairings for Sangiovese?
- Tomato-based sauces
- Smoked meats
- Veal chops
- Braised beef
- Wild boar
What the some features of the Nebbiolo grape in the vineyard?
- Medium-sized berries
- Large bunches
- Early budding
- Late ripening
- Many different clones
- Requires a long growing period
What are some susceptibilities of Nebbiolo?
- Coulure
- Powdery mildew
- Generally resistant to other hazards
What is "Nebbia"?
The fog that occurs in the Piedmont area, after which the Nebbiolo grape was named
Should Nebbiolo be consumed young or aged?
Aged
What are some common food-pairings for Sangiovese?
- Tomato-based sauces
- Smoked meats
- Veal chops
- Braised beef
- Wild boar
What are some features of the Nebbiolo grape in the vineyard?
- Medium-sized berries
- Large bunches
- Early budding
- Late ripening
- Many different clones
- Requires a long growing period
What are some susceptibilities of Nebbiolo?
- Coulure
- Powdery mildew
- Generally resistant to other hazards
What is "Nebbia"?
The fog that occurs in the Piedmont area, after which the Nebbiolo grape was named
Should Nebbiolo be consumed young or aged?
Aged
What are the common descriptors of Nebbiolo in appearance?
Pale to medium garnet/yellow
What are the common descriptors of Nebbiolo on the nose?
Violets, tar, truffles, roses, licorice, dried herbs, cherry cordial
What are the common descriptors of Nebbiolo on the palate?
- High acid
- High tannin
- Medium to full body
- Medium+ alcohol
What are the important regions for Nebbiolo?
Italy/ Piedmont/ Barolo, Barbaresco
What are some common food-pairings for Nebbiolo?
- Wild boar
- Risotto with mushrooms
- Truffles
What are the major influences on wine?
- Viticulture
- Viniculture
- Varietal
- Vintage
- Soil
- Climate
What are the three climate classifications?
- Maritime
- Continental
- Mediterranean
What are some of the common soil types?
- Limestone
- Chalk
- Clay
- Gravel
- Sand
- Granite
- Schist
- Slate
What are the three main North American vine species?
- Vitis Labrusca
- Vitis Riparia
- Vitis Rupestris
How does a hybrid differ from a cross or clone?
- A hybrid is two different species crossed to make a new variety.
- A cross is two different varieties of the same species crossed to make a new variety.
- A clone is a cutting of one variety taken to grow a new plant of that same variety.
What are the components of a grape?
- Water
- Sugar
- Skin
- Phenolics (tannins, pigments, etc)
- Seeds (pips)
- Acids
What is the lifecycle of a vine?
- Dormancy
- Budbreak
- Shoot growth
- Flowering
- Fruit set
- Growth
- Veraison
- Harvest
What does Phylloxera Vastatrix do?
- Feeds on rootstocks
- Kills the vine
What is oidium?
Powdery mildew
What is the "Bordeaux Mixture"?
Lime, copper sulfate, and water
What is the Bordeaux Mixture for?
To control Oidium or Powdery Mildew.
What is Peronospera?
Downy Mildew
What is another name for Downy Mildew?
Peronospera
Downy Mildew and Powdery Mildew are both what kind of disease?
Fungal
What is Grey Rot?
Malevolent form of Botrytis Cinerea
What causes Noble Rot to become Grey Rot?
Lack of sunlight
What is Guignardia Bidwellii?
Black rot
What is the name of the noble form of Black Rot?
There isn't a noble form of Black Rot
What does the Glassy-winged Sharpshooter cause?
Pierce's Disease
What are the effects of Pierce's disease?
- Bacterial growth
- Vine dehydration
- Death of vine in one to five years
What are some details of Leaf Fan and Leaf Roll Virus?
- Vines and rootstock infected during propagation
- Leaves of red varietals turn brilliant red, impeding the grape's sugar accumulation
- Infected vines produce wines with lessened qualities
What is Millerandage?
French term for bunches containing berries of greatly different size and, most important, different levels of maturity
What is Coulure?
The failure of the grapes to develope after flowering
What causes Coulure?
- Metabolic and weather conditions
- Extended rains
- Frigid weather during flowering
- Low sugar content in the vines
What is a scion?
The part of a vine cutting that is grafted to the rootstock, i.e. the vine-cutting itself
What vine-training system is popular for Syrah?
Guyot
What are some things to consider at harvest?
- Timing
- Assessing sugar levels
- Phenolic ripeness
- Method
- Machine
- Manual
What is "Terroir"?
- The natural elements that contribute to a site

- The combination of Soil, Climate, and Aspect
What is the main purpose in Canopy management?
Maximizing sun exposure
What are the appearance componants of assessing a wine?
- Clarity
- Intensity
- Color
- Rim variation
- Viscosity
What are the nose componants when assessing a wine?
- Condition
- Intensity
- Aroma vs. Bouquet
- Fruit
- Earth
- Wood
- Other
What are the palate componants when assessing a wine?
- Dry or sweet
- Acidity
- Fruit
- Earth
- Wood
- Other
- Tannins
- Body
- Alcohol
- Balance
- Length
- Complexity
What are the conclusive componants when assessing a wine?
- New World or Old World
- Climate
- Grape Variety
- Country
- Region
- Quality
- Maturity
- Vintage
What is Saccharomyces Cerevisiae?
The common yeast species used in fermenting grape juice to make wine
What is "Triage"?
Hand sorting of the grapes when they arrive at the winery
What causes the "free-run" juice to flow?
The weight of the grapes
What is Cold Stabilization?
The chilling of wine to precipitate tartaric crystals
What are the three purposes of Sulfer-Dioxide?
- Anti-oxidant
- Disinfectant
- Preservative
What is Calcium Carbonate used for?
Used to decrease acidity, especially in cooler climates or vintages
What is RS?
Residual Sugar left in wine after fermentation
What is Back-Sweetening?
Adding unfermented grape juice to dry wine
What is Sussreserve?
The German term for the juice used in back-sweetening wine
What are Mercaptans?
Foul smelling sulfur compounds
What is TCA?
- 2,4,6 Trichloranisole

- A compound formed between cork, mold, and chlorine
What is a key way to know if a wine is "corked" as opposed to something else?
A corked wine will get worse after opening it
What two organizations govern French wine law?
- INAO
- SdRdF
What is the INAO?
Institut National des Appellations d'Origine
What is the SdRdf?
Service de Repression des Frauds
What happened in 1923 regarding French Wine Law?
Baron du Roy in Chateauneuf-du-Pape created rules for that vineyard area to protect producers of that area, thus creating the model for the AOC
What does the INAO do?
Controls the hierarchy of French quality wines
What does the SdRdF do?
They "police" the complicated wine laws
What are the four French wine law levels?
- Vin de Table
- Vin de Pays
- VDQS
- AOC
What is the VDQS?
Vins Delimites de Qualite Supereure
What is the AOC?
Appellation d'Origine Controlee
Niether Vin de Table nor Vin de Pays wines may be labeled with vintage, region, or variety. True or False?
False. Vin de Table cannot label with region, vintage, or variety but Vin de Pays can
What is a Negociant?
A merchant who trades in grapes, juice, or wine
What is Elevage?
- Elevating wine from basic fermented grape juice...literally to educate

- The vinification processes AFTER fermentation
What is the hierarchy of Burgundian AOC levels?
- Regional or Generic

- District

- Village or Commune
What percentage of Burgundy wines are Premier Cru?
10%-12%
What percentage of Burgundy wines are Grand Cru?
2%
Gevrey-Chambertin "Clos St. Jacques" and Beaune "Greves" are both examples of what Burgundy Cru Classe?
Premier Cru
Chambertin and Musigny are both examples of what Burgundy Cru Classe?
Grand Cru
What are a few threats in the vineyards of Burgundy?
- Frost
- Hail
- Rain at harvest
In which region of Burgundy can Kimmeridgean clay be found?
Chablis
In which region of Burgundy can Limestone be found?
- Cote d'Or
- Cote Chalonnaise
- Maconnais
In which region of Burgundy is Granite predominantly found?
Beaujolais
What are some details of viticulture in Burgundy?
- High vine density
- Low-trained
- Guyot trained in the Cote d'Or
- Gobelet trained in Beaujolais
- Vineyards face E or SE for maximum sunlight
- Clones are important; different mesoclimates
Is Guyot-trained, cane pruned or spur pruned?
Cane pruned
Is Gobelet-trained cane pruned or spur pruned?
Spur pruned
Chaptalization is a common practice of vinification in what French Region?
Burgundy
What are the four main grapes used in Burgundy?
- Chardonnay
- Pinot Noir
- Aligote
- Gamay
What are the four AOC levels of Chablis?
- Petite Chablis
- Chablis
- Chablis 1er Cru
- Chablis Grand Cru
Which produces more red wines, Cote de Nuits or Cote de Beaune?
Cote de Nuits
What kind of wines are from Gevrey-Chambertin?
Well-structured reds from Pinot Noir
What type of wines come from Morey-St.-Denis?
Intense, but less weighty reds from Pinot Noir
What commune houses Chambertin Grand Cru AOC?
Gevrey-Chambertin
What commune houses Clos de Tart Grand Cru AOC?
France/ Burgundy/ Cote d'Or/ Cote de Nuits/ Morey-St.-Denis
What type of wines come from Chambolle-Musigny?
High quality, silky-textured reds from Pinot Noir
In what commune is Musigny Grand Cru AOC?
Chambolle-Musigny
In what commune is Clos de Vougeot Grand Cru AOC?
Vougeot
What are the main wines from Vosne-Romanee?
Highly prized red Burgundies from Pinot Noir
In what commune is Romanee-Conti Grand Cru AOC?
Vosne-Romanee
What commune houses La Tache Grand Cru AOC?
Vosne-Romanee
What type of wines come from Nuits-St.-Georges?
Herbal-scented, medium-bodied, reds from Pinot Noir
In what commune is Nuits-St.-Georges 1er Cru "Les Forets" AOC?
Nuits-St.-Georges
What are some details of Aloxe-Corton?
- Hill on Corton
- Higher elevation
- Reds from Pinot Noir
- Whites from Chardonnay
In which commune is Corton-Charlemagne Grand Cru?
Aloxe-Corton
What are some details of Beaune?
- Commercial center of Burgundian wine industry
- Excellent 1er Crus
- Pinot Noir
- Chardonnay
- Good values
Which commune houses Beaune 1er Cru "Clos des Mouches" AOC?
Beaune
What type of wines come from Pommard?
Rustic and structured red wines only
In which commune is Pommard 1er Cru "Rugiens" AOC?
Pommard
What type of wines come from Volnay?
Silky and floral red wines from Pinoy Noir only
Which commune houses Volnay 1er Cru "Santenots" AOC?
Volnay
What are some details of the wines of Meursault?
- Famous for Chardonnay
- MLF, barrel fermentation and oak aging are traditional
In which commune is Meursault 1er Cru "Genevrieres" AOC
Meursault
What is Puligny-Montrachet known for?
- White wines
- Sharing the most famous Chardonnay vineyard in the world with Chassagne-Montrachet
Which commune houses Montrachet Grand Cru AOC?
Chassagne-Montrachet
Where is St.-Aubin?
France/ Burgundy/ Cote d'Or/ Cote de Beaune
What are some details of Cote Chalonnaise?
- Area of mixed agriculture
- Higher elevation
- Large production
- 90% red from Pinot Noir
- Good value red and white
What are a couple important AOC's of Cote Chalonnaise?
- Mercurey
- Bouzeron
What is an important detail of the wines of Bouzeron?
They are whites from the Aligote grape
What type of wines come from Maconnais?
Mainly whites from Chardonnay but also reds from Pinot Noir and Gamay
What are the important AOCs of Maconnais?
- Macon AOC
- Macon-Villages AOC
- Pouilly-Fuisse AOC
What type of wines come from Pouilly-Fuisse?
High quality Chardonnay, many with oak-aging
What type of wines come from Beaujolais?
Light and fruity reds from Gamay
What are some details of Beaujolais Nouveau?
- Freshly fermented
- Bright fuchsia color
- Candied aroma
- Released on the 3rd Thursday of November after harvest
Which wines are of a higher quality, Beaujolais-Villages or Beaujolais?
Beaujolais-Villages
What are some details that describe Cru Beaujolais?
- Better quality
- 10 Superior Villages
- Less carbonic maceration
- Some oak aging
What are four of the ten individual Cru of Beaujolais?
1) Morgon
2) Moulin-a-Vent
3) St. Amour
4) Brouilly
5) Cote de Brouilly
6) Regnie
7) Chiroubles
8) Fleurie
9) Chenas
10) Julienas
What are a few good vintages from Burgundy?
2002, 1999, 1996, 1990, 1985
What are some food pairings for Burgundy?
- Charolais Beef
- Poulet de Bresse
- Root vegetables
- Mushrooms
- Snails
- Frog's legs
- Dijon mustard
- Creme de cassis
- Boeuf Bourguignon
- Coq au Vin
- Escargots
- Gougeres
- Epoisses
Who drained the Medoc?
The Dutch
When did the Right Bank gain reputation?
1950's
Does Bordeaux have any single vineyards AOCs like Burgundy does?
No
What are the AOC levels of Bordeaux generally based upon?
- Regional
- District
- Commune
Every district of Bordeaux contains commune AOCs. True or False?
False
In Bordeaux, what are referred to more frequently than AOCs?
The Classification System
What is the Bordeaux Classification System based upon that is unusual from the rest of France?
Property lines, as opposed to geography
Describe the classification system of Pomerol.
Pomerol does not have a classification system
What year was the Classification of the Medoc?
1855
Who commissioned the 1855 Classification?
Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce
What is the 1855 based on?
The prices for the last 100 years
How many Chateaux were ranked in the 1855?
61
How were the Chateaux ranked in the 1855?
1st through 5th growths
How many 1st Growths were originally classified in the 1855?
4
Which Chateau was elevated from 2nd Growth to 1st Growth in 1973?
Chateau Mouton-Rothschild
What are the five 1st Growth Chateaux of Bordeaux?
1) Chateau Margaux
2) Chateau Haut-Brion
3) Chateau Lafite
4) Chateau Latour
5) Chateau Mouton-Rothschild (since 1973)
By the 1855, how were the wines of Sauternes and Barsac ranked?
In two tiers; 1st Growth and 2nd Growth, with Chateau d'Yquem in its own category of 1er Cru Superieur
What Bordeaux Chateau is classified as 1er Cru Superieur?
Chateau d'Yquem
What happened in Bordeaux in 1932?
The classification of the rest of the Chateaux not included as Cru Classe in 1855
In the 1932 Classification of Bordeaux, how were the Chateaux classified?
Into three categories:
- Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnels (9)
- Cru Bourgeois Superieurs (87)
- Cru Bourgeois (151)
How many Chateaux were included in the 1932 Classification of Bordeaux?
247
What is a hazard in Bordeaux?
Humidity
What are the three main waterways of Bordeaux?
- Gironde Tributary
- Gaironne River
- Dordogne River
What protects Bordeaux from the influences of the Atlantic?
The Landes Forest
Why is vintage so important in Bordeaux?
The maritime climate causes the weather to vary greatly
To what does "cold wet feet" apply?
Bordeaux, Right Bank Merlot
What is the soil make-up of the Left Bank?
Deep gravel topsoil over marl and limestone
What is the soil make-up of the Right Bank?
Clay and sandstone
What are some details of viticulture in Bordeaux?
- High vine density
- Guyot or Cordon trained low to utilize reflected heat
- Spraying for mildew
- Hand harvesting for quality wines
- Different varieties harvested at different times
- Top sweet white wines are Botrytis affected
Fundamentally, how do Burgundian wines differ from Bordeaux wines?
Burgundies are single variety, Bordeaux are blends
What is "Encepagement"?
A blend of different varietals
What is "Cepage"?
A grape variety
What is "Assemblage"?
A blending together
Why is the blending of different varietals so important in Bordeaux?
Due to vintage variance.

The winemaker can choose to add or omit varieties that had a good or bad year
Which wines in Bordeaux are aged in new oak barriques?
Top quality wines, i.e. the wines from Chateaux who can afford new oak
What wine region's white wines are made from Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, and Muscadelle?
France/ Bordeaux/ Left Bank/ Graves/ especially Sauternes and Barsac
What are some details of the wines of Haut-Medoc?
- Reds only
- Cabernet Sauvignon based
- Good quality
- Some classified growths
What are the four commune AOCs of Haut-Medoc?
- St. Estephe
- Pauillac
- St. Julien
- Margaux
Where is Pessac-Leognan?
France/ Bordeaux/ Left bank/ Graves/ bordering south of the city of Bordeaux
What river provides the mist that allows Botrytis in Sauternes and Barsac?
Ciron
How long does Chateaux d'Yquem age in new oak?
Three years
Where is Barsac?
France/ Bordeaux/ Left Bank/ Graves/ Sauternes
What type of wines are produced under the Entre-Deux-Mers AOC?
- Dry whites only
- Range of styles
- Fresh and aromatic
- Oak-aged
What is the AOC for red wines produced in Entre-Deux-Mers?
Bordeaux AOC
When is the classification of Estates in St.-Emilion reviewed?
About every ten years
What are some good Bordeaux vintages?
2005, 2000, 1990, 1989, 1986, 1985, 1982, 1970, 1966, 1961, 1945
Name a few up and coming AOCs of the Right Bank.
- Fronsac
- Canon-Fronsac
- Cotes de Castillon
What are some Bordeaux food pairings?
- Oysters
- Eel
- Pike
- Lamb
- Beef
- Prunes
- Walnut oil
- Goose liver
- Chantrelles
- Cepes
- Truffles
- Lamprey a la Bordelaise
- Gigot d'Agneau
- Foie Gras
- Brebis-Sheep's milk
- Mimolette
What are the two main regions of Alsace?
- Haut-Rhin
- Bas-Rhin
Despite having detailed vineyard records dating back five hundred years, how long has Alsace been making really good wine?
About 40 years
Generally, what is the controversy with Alsace Grand Cru?
- They allow very high yields

- They rate vineyards but not for a specific grape variety per vineyard
How many vineyards are considered Grand Cru in Alsace?
50
When was Alsace Grand Cru AOC established?
1983
What are the four Alsace Grand Cru grapes?
- Riesling
- Gewurztraminer
- Pinot Gris
- Muscat
What grape not considered Grand Cru is allowed Grand Cru status if from the Zotzenberg vineyard?
Sylvaner
Sylvaner is only allowed to be Grand Cru if from what vineyard?
Zotzenberg
Briefly explain how the Grand Cru rating is set up in Alsace.
Specific vineyards are chosen but any of the four Grand Cru grapes can be grown there and rated Grand Cru
What are the details of VT, or Vendage Tardive wines?
- Late harvested grapes
- May be vinified dry, off-dry or sweet
- Grapes may have Botrytis
- Concentrated
- No chaptalization
- Same laws as Grand Cru vineyards
What are some details about Selection de Grains Nobles?
- Botrytis-affected sweet wines
- Very high concentration
- Always sweet
What major river flows near Alsace?
Rhine
What are a few details about the climate of Alsace?
- Cold continental
- Rainshadow from Vosges Mountains
- Long, sunny autumns with some humidity for Botrytis
What type of soil is in Alsace?
- Extremely varied
- Mineral rich and organically poor on the hillsides
- Deep and organically rich in the valley
- Loas
What are some viticultural details of Alsace?
- High-trained vines (double-guyot)
- Follow contours for maximum sun
- Terraces on steep slopes
- High maximum yields
- Harvest lasts several weeks
- Potential for very high must weight
What type of pruning is Double-Guyot?
Cane
More or less, what is the answer to any question about Swiss grapes?
Chasselas
What is a Foudres?
In Alsace, a very large nuetral oak barrel, usually with thick tartrate build-up inside
What is the traditional use of MLF in Alsace?
It is blocked
In Alsace, oak-aging is common. True or False?
False, oak-aging is very rare in Alsace
What is a flute d'Alsace?
The tall, tapering bottles used commonly to bottle white wines in Alsace.
What labeling detail is common is Alsace but unusual for the rest of France?
Varietal labeling
Classically, what sweetness level are all Alsace wines?
Dry
What are two of the grapes of Alsace not commonly rated for Grand Cru?
- Chasselas
- Sylvaner
- Pinot Blanc
- Auxerrois
- Pinot Noir
What is Edelzwicker?
Literally means "noble blend" but is actually cheap plonk
What grape varieties can be used for Edelzwicker?
Any AC Alsace
What grapes are not allowed for Cremant d'Alsace?
- Gewurztraminer
- Chasselas
What grape is allowed for Cremant d'Alsace even though it is not AC rated in the region?
Chardonnay
Where are the major appellations of Alsace?
Mostly in the Haut-Rhin around Colmar
Where are Turckheim, Riquewihr, and Thann?
France/ Alsace/ Haut-Rhin
What are some common food pairings for Alsace?
- Cabbage
- Fresh water fish
- Sausages
- Veal
- Goose
- Pork
- Fruit preserves
- Choucroute Gami
- Quiche Lorraine
- Fruit tarts
- Munster
- Pheasant
- Onion tart
- Dry Riesling goes especially well with Saurkraut
What was known as the "playland of the aristocracy"?
The Loire Valley
While there is no AOC for the entire Loire Valley, there are two Loire ACs. What are they?
- Rose de Loire
- Cremant de Loire
What is the Vin de Pays for the Loire Valley?
Vin de Pays du Jardin de la France
Approximately how much Loire wine is white vs. red?
- 55% White
- 24% Red
What is the climate of the Loire Valley?
From east to west, continental, semi-continental, and maritime
What is the soil type of the Loire Valley?
From east to west, clay and flint, tuffeau, schist, and granite
What are some details of viticulture in the Loire Valley?
- Mixed agriculture
- Mostly guyot trained vines
- Machine harvesting is the norm
- Some Botrytis-affected wines
- Canopy management important in cool climate
Are Loire wines blended?
Some, but generally not
Chaptalization is normal in the Loire Valley. True or False?
True
What styles of wine are produced in the Loire Valley?
- Sparkling
- Sur Lie
- Sec
- Demi-sec
- Moelleux (sweet)
- Liquoreux (sweeter)
- Botrytis-affected
What are the common grape varieties of the Loire Valley?
- Sauvignon Blanc
- Chenin Blanc
- Melon de Bougogne
- Cabernet Franc
- Pinot Noir
- Gamay Noir
- Grolleau
What is the most planted grape in the Loire?
Grolleau
What is Muscadet?
A wine made sur lie from Melon de Bourgogne grapes in the Pays Nantais in the Loire Valley.
Is Muscadet a grape variety?
No. It is a wine made sur lie from Melon de Bourgogne grapes in the Pays Nantais in the Loire Valley.
What are some details about the wines from Sancerre?
- Crisp whites from Sauvignon Blanc
- Herbaceous and mineral notes
- Small production of reds from Pinot Noir
What wines come from Pouilly-Fume?
Flinty whites from Sauvignon Blanc
What type of wines come from Vouvray?
Still and sparkling whites from Chenin Blanc in all sweetness levels. Classically, Vouvray is a still white with just a touch of sweetness.
What wines come from Chinon?
Medium-bodied reds from Cabernet Franc
What wines come from Bourgueil?
Structured reds from Cabernet Franc
What type of wines come from Savennieres?
Dry, age-worthy whites from Chenin Blanc
What type of wines come from Coteaux du Layon?
Dessert-style Chenin Blanc often Botrytis-affected
Where is Bonnezeaux?
France/ Loire Valley/ Anjou-Saumur/ Coteaux du Layon
Where is Quarts-de-Chaume?
France/ Loire Valley/ Anjou
What type of wine comes from Muscadet de Sevre et Maine?
- Light-bodied, dry whites from Melon de Bourgogne
- Often aged "sur lie"
What do Vouvray, Chinon and Bourgueil all have in common?
They are all within Touraine
Is vintage very important in the Loire Valley?
Yes. Varied weather from an array of regions.
What are some food pairings for the Loire Valley?
- Oysters
- Seafood
- Fresh water fish
- Game
- Frog's legs
- Andouillettes
- Rillettes
- Terrines and pates
- White fish in beurre blanc
- Tarte tatin
- Goat's cheese
- Crottin de Chavignol
- Selles-sur-Cher
- Valencay
To which region applies the phrase, "The rival Popes of Avignon"?
The Rhone Valley
What appellation is the original model for the AOC?
Chateauneuf-du-Pape
What is the climate of the Rhone Valley?
North- Continental
South- Mediterranean
What is a major weather factor in the Rhone Valley?
The Mistral Winds
Which part of the Rhone Valley does the Mistral most affect?
The Northern Rhone
What is the soil type for the Rhone Valley?
North- Granite
South- Stony, "galets", aluvial
What are "Galets"?
Large, round rocks, especially in the vineyards of Chateauneuf-du-Pape.
What is "Taille en Archet"?
The vine-staking process used in the Northern Rhone to protect the vines from the Mistral Winds.
What are some details of viticulture in the Northern Rhone?
- Steep slopes, narrow river valley
- Low yields
- Vines staked for protection aginst the wind; "Taille en Archet"
- Hand harvesting for best wines
What are some details of viticulture in the Southern Rhone?
- Mountain slopes, flat areas, broad river valley
- Low yields
- Gobelet training except for Syrah (Guyot)
- Hand harvesting mandated by many AOCs
What are the main white grapes of the Northern Rhone?
- Viognier
- Marsanne
- Roussanne
What are the main red grapes of the Northern Rhone?
- Syrah
What are the main grapes of the Southern Rhone?
- Roussanne
- Marsanne
- Grenache (red and white)
- Syrah
- Mourvedre
- Carignan
- Cinsault
What type of wines come from Cote-Rotie?
- Reds from Syrah
- Small percentage of Viognier permitted in blend
What type of wines come from Condrieu?
Perfumed whites from Viognier
What is the smallest AC?
Chateau Grillet
Where is Chateau Grillet?
France/ Northern Rhone/ Condrieu
What type of wines come from Hermitage?
- Long-lived reds from Syrah
- Whites from Marsanne and Roussanne
What type of wines come from Cornas?
- Reds from 100% Syrah
- Dark full Syrah, usually needs time
- 10 years old+
What are some important details of Chatillon-en-Diois AC?
- Raised to AC status from VDQS in 1974
- Reds from Gamay with Syrah and Pinot Noir
- Whites from Aligote or Chardonnay sold as variety labeled
- Located in the Northern Rhone
Where is Chatillon-en-Diois AC?
France/ Northern Rhone
What type of wines come from Clairette de Die?
- Traditional Method
- Whites from 100% Clairette (Clairette Blanc)
What type of wines come from Clairette de Die Methode Diose Ancestrale?
- Sparkling wines from Muscat and Clairette
- Bottled before the 1st fermentation is complete
- Somewhat sweet
The Southern Rhone rarely has a bad vintage. True or False?
True
How was the 2002 vintage in the Southern Rhone?
Terrible with bad flooding
What kind of wines come from Cotes-du-Rhone?
- Straight forward reds, whites and rose
What type of wines come from Chateauneuf-du-Pape?
- Ripe, full-bodied reds
- Small production of whites
Generally, Gigondas produces what kind of wines?
Reds and roses only
What type of wines come from Tavel?
Only dry roses from Grenache
What are some food pairings for the Rhone Valley?
- Stone fruit, figs, herbs, nuts, honey, mesclun greens, olive oil, duck, quail, rabbit, wild boar

- Pistou, Aioli, Ratatouille, Duck with lavender honey, Beef with mushrooms, olives and bacon, Rabbit stuffed with tapenade

- St. Marcellin
Where is Vacqueyras?
France/ Southern Rhone/ between Chateauneuf-du-Pape and Gigondas
Where was the notorious "wine lake" up until recently?
France/ Languedoc-Roussillon
What is the Vin de Pays for Languedoc/Roussillon?
Vin de Pays d'Oc
What type of wines come from Coteaux du Languedoc?
Reds, whites and roses
What are a few important AOCs from Languedoc/Roussillon?
- Coteaux du Languedoc
- Faugeres
- St. Chinian
- Minervois
- Cotes-du-Roussillon
- Corbrieres
- Collioure
What are some food pairings for Languedoc/Roussillon?
- Vegetables, fresh fish, mushrooms, snails, anchovies

- Octopus with artichokes and savory walnut creme
- Baked bell pepper with anchovies
- Sausage stews
- Vegetables and meat grilled over vine-cuttings
- Cassoulet
What year did Pliny call the "greatest vintage"?
121 BC
What year was the Italian DOC formed?
1963
In 1966, which was the first Italian DOC named?
Vernaccia di San Gimignano
When was the IGT created?
1992
What are the main grape varieties used in Italy?
- Sangiovese
- Trebbiano
- Malvasia
In Italy, what does "Classico" mean?
The original center of a DOC region
What are the important DOCGs of Piedmont?
- Barolo
- Barbaresco
- Gavi
- Moscato d'Asti
- Asti
What type of wines come from Barolo and Barbaresco?
- Long-lived tannic reds from Nebbiolo
- Slightly softer wines in Barbaresco
What type of wines come from Gavi?
Still white wines with lemony acidity from Cortese grapes
What is the most northerly region of Italy?
Trentino-Alto Adige
What is the main grape of Trentino-Alto Adige
Pinot Grigio
What type of wines come from Soave DOC?
- Crisp whites based on Garganega
- Range from neutral to aromatic
- Dry to sweet
What type of wines come from Valpolicella?
- Light, fruity reds for early drinking
- From Corvina, Rondinella and Molinara
- Ripasso technique adds body and flavor
What are some details of Amarone della Valpolicella?
- Semi-dried grapes
- Dry, full-bodied, intense and alcoholic reds
- Raisinated style
- From Corvina, Molinara, Rondinella
- Minimum 14% alcohol
What type of wines come from Recioto della Valpolicella?
- Semi-dried grapes
- Sweet reds
- From Corvina, Rondinella and Molinara
What is the main difference between Amarone della Valpolicella and Recioto della Valpolicella?
Amorone is dry while Recioto is sweet
What type of soil is in Tuscany?
Limestone
What grape variety is used for Brunello di Montalcino?
100% Sangiovese
What was the first wine classified as DOCG?
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
What are some details of Vin Santo?
- Red or white grapes
- Dried grapes
- Slow fermentation
- Long maturation in barrel
- Deliberately oxidized style
- "Sour mash" seeding of the yeast
Name a couple Super-Tuscan wines?
- Sassicaia
- Tignanello (Antinori)
What are some good vintages for Barolo and Barbaresco?
2004, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1990, 1989, 1988
What are some food pairings for Northern Italy?
- Cream, butter, beans, corn, pork, veal, cured meats

- Potatoes, asparagus, eel, wild duck, rice, white truffles

- Minestrone, polenta, stuffed pasta, risotto, panini, radicchio forno, balsamic vinegar

- Bacon or spinach dumplings, Goose stuffed with nuts, Fonduta, Apple strudel, Panettone

- Grana padano, gorgonzola, asiago, parmigiano reggiano, taleggio
What are some food pairings for Central and Southern Italy?
- Olive oil, olives, balsamic vinegar, mushrooms, tomatoes, beans, squid

- Veal, truffles, piqeon, calamari, gelato

- Osso Buco, Bistecca all Fiorentina, Pig's liver in herb sauce, Squid stuffed with herbs, veal and bread crumbs, Lasagna, Cannelloni, Stuffed olives, Spaghetti, Saltimbocca

- Pecorino Romano, Mozzarella
What are the only DOCa and COQ in Spain?
Rioja and Priorato
What is the name of the particular soil of Priorato?
Llicorella
What are the details of wines labeled Crianza in Spain?
Reds
- Sold after two years at winery
- Six months minimum wood aging (1 year for Rioja)

Whites
- Six months in barrel
- Sold after 18 months at winery
What are the details of wines labeled Reserva in Spain?
Reds
- Good wines from good vintages
- Sold after minimum three years at winery
- One year minimum wood aging

Whites
- Six months in barrel
- Sold after 24 months at winery
What are the details of wines labeled Gran Reserva in Spain?
Reds
- Best wines from exceptional vintages
- Sold after minimum five years at winery
- Two year minimum wood aging

Whites
- Six months in barrel
- Sold after 48 months at winery
What are the soil-types in Spain?
- Limestone
- Clay
- Coarse Sand
- Granite
- Albariza (Sherry)
- LLicorella (Priorat)
What are some details of Spain's viticulture?
- Low density plantings
- Low yields due to water stress
- Mostly gobelet-trained (en vaso)
- High average age of vines
- Irrigation legal since 1996
What are the most planted white grapes of Spain?
- Airen
- Macabeo (Viura)
- Albarino
What is most Airen used for in Spain?
Plonk and brandy
What grape is used most for Cava?
Macabeo
What are the most planted red grapes of Spain?
- Garnacha
- Monastrell (Mourvedre)
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Tempranillo under many synonyms; Cencibel, Tinto Fino, Tinto del Pais, Ull de Llebre
What type of wines come from Ribera del Duero?
- Full-bodied reds based on Tinto del Pais (Tempranillo)
What type of wines come from Rias Baixas?
Perfumed, crisp whites from Albarino
What are some details of the wines from Rioja?
- Considered the most important Spanish wine
- Reds based on Tempranillo (about 70% with the rest from Garnacha and Carignan)
- Whites based on Viura (Macabeo)
- More French oak for modern wines
What are the three zones of Rioja?
- Rioja Alta
- Rioja Alavesa
- Rioja Baja
Which two are the best of the three zones of Rioja?
- Rioja Alavesa
- Rioja Baja
What are some details of the wines of Priorat?
- Known for full-bodied and spicy reds based on old-vine Garnacha and Cabernet Sauvignon
What are a few progressive DOs of Southern Spain?
- Alicante
- Yecla
- Jumilla
- Almansa
What are some food pairings for Spanish wines?
- Olive oil, garlic, cod, eels, anchovies, lamb and mutton, chicken, artichokes, avocados, peppers, tomatoes, oranges, serrano ham, sausage

- Tapas, Marinated mushrooms and srtichokes with fried chicken, olives and cheese, Paella and Casseroles, Gazpacho, Fried fish, Salt cod

- Marinated, fried squid with tomatoes, Roast chicken with red peppers, Roast leg of lamb, Suckling pig, Valencia orange flan

- Manchego
What are the four wine-law levels in Portugal?
- Vinho de Mesa
- Vinho de Regional
- IPR (Indicacao de Proveniencia Regulamentada)
- DOC (Denominacao de Origem Controlada)
What are the soil types of Portugal?
- Granite
- Schist
- Sand
What is a red grape variety with red flesh?
Alicante Bouche
What are the main grapes of Portugal?
- Alvarinho
- Touriga Nacional
- Tinta Roriz
- Baga
- Paraquita
- Alicante Bouche
In Portugal, what does Reserva mean?
From a single vintage and with higher alcohol requirements
On a wine label from Portugal, what does "Garrafeira" mean?
White wines
- Sold after one year at winery/ six months in barrel

Red wines
- Sold after three years at winery/ two years in barrel

- 1% extra alcohol
What is Vinho Verde famous for?
Light-bodied whites from Alvarinho
What type of wines come from Dao?
- Rustic reds based on Tuoriga Nacional
- Aromatic whites from Encruzado
What type of wines come from Bairrada?
- In Portugal

- Predominantly reds from Baga
What are some food pairings for wines from Portugal?
- Salt cod, pork, crab, sausage, potatoes, pickled onion, garlic, salt

- Bacalau, Vinhos d'Alhos, Baked crab with port

- Sao Jorge, Serra da Estrela
What is the difference between Tafelwein and Deutscher Tafelwein?
Tafelwein can be made from grapes from anywhere in the EU, whereas Deutscher Tafelwein must be made from grapes grown inside Germany.
How many Anbaugebiete are there?
13
What is Oechsle?
The same as Brix. Sugar level.
Between QmP and QbA which one is allowed chaptalization?
QbA
What are the six levels of German QmP wine law?
- Kabinett
- Spatlese
- Auslese
- Beerenauslese
- Eiswein
- Trockenbeerenauslese
Eiswein must be at least as sweet as which other QmP level?
Beerenauslese
Is chaptalization allowed for QmP?
No
What is a Bereich?
A large area within an Anbaugebiete
What is a Gemeinde?
In Germany, a cummune or village
Name a few Anbaugebiete?
- Ahr
- Baden
- Franken
- Hessische Bergstrasse
- Mittelrhein
- Mosel
- Nahe
- Pfalz
- Rheingau
- Rheinhessen
- Saale-Unstrut
- Sachsen
- Wurttemberg
What is a Grosselage?
A collection of vineyards
What is a Einzellage?
A single vineyard
What is Erzeugerabfullung and Gutsabfullung?
A producer or estate bottled
What is a major issue in Germany?
Cold and frost. The grapes struggle to ripen.
What are the soil types in Germany?
- Slate
- Sandstone
- Loess
What are some details of German Viticulture?
- Vines staked on steep slopes
- Pendelbogen-training (on wires)
- Planted to maximize sun exposure
- Very high yields compared to other EU regions
What are the common grape varieties in Germany?
- Riesling
- Silvaner
- Muller-Thurgau
- Pinot Gris (Rulander, Grauburgunder)
- Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir) especially in Pfalz
What are some details of wines from Mosel-Saar-Ruwer?
- Steep, slate slopes
- Light-bodied whites from Riesling
- High acidity
- Residual sugar
- Lime, floral and mineral character
What are some details of wines from the Rheingau?
- South facing slopes
- Fuller-bodied Rieslings with tropical fruit character
- Higher alcohol
- Often vinified dry (about 80% of the time)
What are some details of wines from the Rheinhessen?
- Primarily flat land
- Best wines from slopes
- Home of Liebfraumilch
What are some details of the wines from Pfalz?
- Alsace-influenced grape varieties
- Riesling, Rulander, Spatburgunder
- Fuller-bodied wines
- Drier, higher alcohol styles
What are some good German vintages?
2007, 2005, 2001, 1995, 1990, 1989, 1988, 1976, 1975
What was the worst vintage of German wine in the past few decades?
1991
What are some food pairings for German wines?
- Pork, sausage (bratwurst), veal, goose, onions, cabbage, potato, wheat

- Schnitzel (breaded porkchop), Boiled new Potatoes, Sauerkraut, Roast Goose, Black Forest cake, Stollen (fruit cake w/ icing)

- Limburger, munster, cambozola
When was the wine scandal of Austria?
1985
What are the common grape varieties of Austria?
- Gruner Veltliner
- Riesling
- Blaufrankisch (Lemberger)
- Zweigelt (Lemberger X St Lorent)
What are the Austrian National Classification levels?
- Tafelwein
- Landwein
- Qualitatswein
- Kabinett
What are the three categories of the Wachau Classification?
- Steinfeder
- Federspeil
- Smaragd
What is the DAC in Austria?
Districtus Austriae Controllatus
What are the important regions of Austria?
- Wien (Vienna)
- Wachau
- Kremstal
- Kamptal
- Burgenland
What are the classic regions for Gruner Veltliner?
Austria/ Wachau, Kremstal, Kamptal
What are the main grapes of Hungary?
- Furmint
- Harslevelu
What is the important wine of Hungary?
Tokaji Aszu
In Hungary, what does Aszu mean?
Botrytis affected
How is Tokaji Aszu made?
- Aszu (botrytis-affected) grapes are pounded into a paste
- The paste is added to dry wine made from healthy grapes
Which country was the first to produce Botrytis-affected wines?
Hungary
Aside from geography and varietals, what is a major difference between Sauternes and Tokaji Aszu?
Tokaji Aszu is not oaked, while Sauternes is
What is a Gonc?
In Hungary, a 136-140 liter cask traditionally used to measure base wine
What is a Puttony?
In Hungary, a traditional 20-25kg container used to measure Aszu paste
The more puttonyos, the _____ the wine.
Sweeter
What is the most concentrated version of Tokaji Aszu?
Esszencia
What is the famous red wine from Hungary?
Bull's Blood
Where is Burgenland?
Austria
What are a couple of great vintages for Tokaji Aszu?
1999, 1993
Why was phylloxera a relatively small problem in Spain?
- Sandy, dry soils
- Vineyard isolation
- They learned ahead from the French
Regarding Portugal's Vinho Verde, what are the two different meanings of the word "Verde"?
- Green
- Fresh or youthfull
Which grapes are allowed for the production of Tokaji Aszu in Hungary?
- Furmint
- Harslevelu
- Muscat
What are the two main grape varieties used in the production of Tokaji Aszu in Hungary?
- Furmint
- Harslevelu
Name four indigenous grape varieties found in Spain.
- Garnacha
- Tempranillo
- Albarino
- Macabeo
- Palomino
- Xarel-lo
- Pedro Ximenez (PX)
Germany is well-known for developing vine crossings. Why has this been a necessary part of German viticulture?
Because of Germany's harsh climate, they've needed to find or create grapes more able to withstand the cold weather.
What are the four levels of quality under Spanish wine law?
- Vino de Pagos
- VCIG
- DO
- DOCa
What is the major climatic difference between the north and south of Spain?
The north is a more continental climate, the south more Mediterranean.
What two organizations were created in 1935 to control fraud in the wine industry?
- INAO
- SdRdF
Name the four levels of quality based on age found in the DO classifications in Spain.
- Joven
- Crianza
- Reserva
- Gran Reserva
What is the definition of Joven by the DO classification in Spain?
Young wine with no aging required
By the DO classification in Spain, what is the definition of Crianza for reds?
Two years aging; one in oak and one in bottle.
By the DO classification in Spain, what is the definition of Reserva for reds?
Three years of aging; one in oak and two in bottle.
By the DO classification in Spain, what is the definition of Gran Reserva for reds?
Five years of aging; two in oak and three in bottle.
What is Liebfraumilch and where is most of it from?
- A simple white wine made from various grapes

- From Germany in the Rheinhessen
Name four Anbaugebiete in Germany.
1) Ahr
2) Baden
3) Franken
4) Hessische Bergstrasse
5) Mittelrhein
6) Mosel
7) Nahe
8) Pfalz
9) Rheingau
10) Rheinhessen
11) Saale-Unstrut
12) Sachsen
13) Wurttemberg
Name four major Anbaugebiete in Germany.
- Mosel
- Nahe
- Pfalz
- Rheingau
- Rheinhessen
If a red wine smells like bananas, bubblegum, and cotton-candy, what wine-making technique could be responsible?
Carbonic maceration
What is the name given to the Tempranillo grape in Spain's Ribero del Duero?
Tinto del Pais
What lake is prominent in the Veneto region of Italy?
Garda
Name four faults found in wine and describe their scent.
1) TCA (trichlorolanisol or "corked").
- Wet cardboard/moldy newspaper/damp basement

2) SO2 (Sulpher dioxide)
- Sulpher/rotten eggs/burnt matches

3) VA (Volatile acidity)
- Nailpolish remover/acetone

4) Brett (Brettanomyces)
- Barnyard/moussy

5) Mercaptins
- Sweaty onions

6) Oxidized
- Cooked, nutty flavors
A Spatlese level wine from Germany can be dry or sweet. True or false?
True
What are the two DOCa's (DOQ in Catalan) in Spain as of 2004?
Rioja (DOCa) and Priorat (DOQ)
What is the most planted grape variety in terms of acreage in the world?
Airen
Where was the birth of sparkling wine in the United States?
Ohio. Longworth's Sparkling Catawba
Who was the wine pioneer of California?
Agoston Haraszthy
Who oversees wine law in the United States since 2002?
The Alcohol, Tax, and Trade
Who was the pioneer of viticulture in the Finger Lakes region of New York State?
Dr. Konstantin Frank
What are the four largest wine-producing countries in the world?
- Italy
- France
- Spain
- USA
What is an AVA?
American Viticultural Area
What are the details of an AVA?
- Outlines region of production
- No quality grading system
- Varietally labeled, some proprietary labeling
What percentage of a certain grape must be in a single vineyard-labeled varietal wine in the USA?
95%
What percentage of a single grape must be in a varietally labeled wine in the USA?
75%
What is the exception to the rule that a varietally-labeled wine must contain 75% of the labeled variety in the USA?
Oregon, where 90% is the requirement
In Oregon, what percentage of a certain variety must be in a varietally-labeled wine?
90%
In the USA, on a country or state-labeled bottle, what percentage of the grapes must be from the labeled location?
75%
On AVA-labeled bottles, what percentage of the grapes must be from tha stated AVA?
85%
What are the exceptions to the rule that AVA-labeled bottles must be 85% from grapes from the stated AVA?
Oregon and Washington which both require 100%
In Washington and Oregon, on AVA-labeled wines, what percentage of the grapes must be from the stated AVA?
100%
In the USA, what percentage of a single vintage must a wine contain if vintage-labeled?
95%
In the USA, vintage-labeled wine must contain what percentage of wine from the stated vintage?
95%
What is the climate-type of California?
Mediterranean
What are some soil-types in California?
- Alluvial
- Rich loam
- Volcanic
- Granite
What are some details if viticulture in California?
- Generally lower density than European vineyards
- Several training systems
- Irrigation
- Hand-harvesting for top vineyards
- Phylloxera and Pierce's Disease are modern threats
What was the UC Davis rootstock that failed to be phylloxera-immune as promised?
AxR-1 (Aramon crossed with Rupestris Ganzin number 1)
What are some common grape varieties in California?
Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
Zinfandel
Syrah
Pinot Noir
Chardonnay
Sauvignon Blanc
What are some details of the Lodi/Woodbridge AVA?
- Highly productive area
- Warm, dry area
- High yields
- Zinfandel common
- Average Zinfandel vine age: 85 years
What are some details of the Napa Valley AVA?
- 30 miles long
- In summer temperatures can be warmer by one degree per mile heading north
- San Pablo Bay
- Valley floor extensively planted
- Most famous for Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the main sub-regions of the Napa Valley AVA?
- Oakville AVA
- Rutherford AVA
- Howell Mountain AVA
- Stag's Leap AVA
- Carneros AVA
What are some tasting differences between the main sub-regions of the Napa Valley AVA?
- Oakville AVA has wines with concentrated fruit
- Rutherford AVA wines have distinct minerality
- Howell Mountain AVA are tannic wines from high altitude
- Stag's Leap AVA are slower ripening wines with herbal and light floral notes
- Carneros AVA are earlier ripening varieties often used for sparkling wine
What are some important AVA's of California outside of Napa?
- Sonoma County
- Sonoma Valley
- Russian River Valley
- Dry Creek
- Santa Barbara
- Santa Maria
- Santa Ynez
What is a prominant grape in Sonoma County?
Zinfandel
What is a prominant grape in the Central Coast?
Viognier
What are some California foods?
- Avacado, swordfish, shrimp and prawns, wild boar, oranges
What is the second largest wine producing state?
Washington
What are the climate types for Washington State?
- Western side of the state is maritime

- Eastern side of the state is continental
What are some details of viticulture in Washington state?
- High cordon training
- Ungrafted vines
- Protection against winter freezes
- Irrigation from Columbia River
Why are most of the vines in Washington State ungrafted?
A deep freeze every few years keeps phylloxera from fully taking hold of vines
What are the most common grape varieties in Washington State?
Merlot
Cabernet Sauvignon
Syrah
Riesling
Chardonnay
How many AVA's are in Washington State?
9
What are the most known AVA's of Washington State?
- Columbia Valley
- Yakima Valley
- Walla Walla Valley
In what ways does Oregon compair to Burgundy?
- Cooler climates
- Attention to individual vineyard sites
- Pinot Noir does well
- Focus on single varietal wines
What are the soils types of Oregon State?
- Volcanic
- Marine fossils
- Red-clay loam
What is the soil type of the Dundee Hills region of Oregon State?
Red-clay loam
What are the main grape varieties of Oregon State?
Pinot Noir
Pinot Gris
What is the most important AVA of Oregon State?
Willamette Valley
Where is the Umpqua Valley?
USA/ Oregon/ middle-ish part of the state
What are some important AVA's of Oregon State?
- Willamette Valley
- Umpqua Valley
- Rogue Valley
- Columbia Valley
What are some Pacific Northwest foods?
- Oysters, salmon, hazelnuts, lamb, artisan cheeses
What are the two main areas for vine growing in Canada?
Niagara Peninsula and Okanagan Valley
What is the soil type for Niagara Peninsula?
Limestone and glacial till
What is the soil type for the Okanagan Valley?
Sand
What are the common grape varieties for the Niagara Peninsula?
- History of hybrids

Vidal
Baco Noir

- Vitis Vinifera

Riesling
Cabernet Franc
What are the common grape varieties for the Okanagan Valley?
Pinot Gris
Pinot Blanc
Riesling
Pinot Noir
Merlot
Syrah
Who was Claudio Gay?
He set up a botanical nursery in Chile in the 1830's specializing in Bordeaux varieties.
What is the climate type of Chile?
Mediterranean
What is the main soil-type in Chile?
Sand
What are some viticultural details in Chile?
- Ungrafted vines due to vineyard isolation
- Irrigation water from melted snow
- Lifecycle opposite that if Northern Hemisphere
What are some of the common grape varieties in Chile?
Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
Carmenere
Chardonnay
Sauvignon Blanc
What French varietal shows its best examples in Chile?
Carmenere
What are some details of Aconcagua?
- Most northerly region of Chile
- Hot, dry interior
- Good red wines
What are some details of Casablanca?
- Cool, wet area
- Crisp whites
What are some details about the Maipo Valley?
- Best known region of Chile
- South of Santiago
- Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay are the most planted varieties
What are some details about the Rapel Valley?
- Two sub-regions; Cachapoal and Colchagua
- Reputation for Cabernet Sauvignon
What are some details of wines grown at high altitudes that differ from those of other elevations?
- Greater diurnal shift
- High phenolics
What is the climate type in Argentina?
Warm continental
What are the soil-types in Argentina?
- Sand
- Clay
- Alluvial
What are some details of viticulture in Argentina?
- Traditionally very high yields
- Best sites at high alititudes
- Irrigation channels distribute water to vineyards
- recent introduction of drip-irrigation
What are some common grape varieties in Argentina?
Malbec
Cabernet Sauvignon
Bonarda
Torrontes
Chardonnay
What are some details of Mendoza?
- Best known region of Argentina
- Largest production in Argentina
- Foreign investment
- Concentrated reds
- Classic region for Malbec
Where do the white grapes for wines of Mendoza come from?
San Juan, the region to the north of Mendoza
What are some food differences between Chile and Argentina?
Chile is focused on indigenous foods while Argentina has a heavy European influence.
What are some details of wine in Uruguay?
- Vinifera are replacing hybrids
- 1/3 Tannat
- Cooled by Atlantic breezes
- All hand harvested
- Export market push
What is a G.I.?
In Australia, a Geographic Indicator. Geographical areas enforced by the Label Integrity Program (LIP).
What are some details of Australia's wine laws?
- Approximately 25 wine zones, with regions and sub-regions
- No Chaptalizing
- 85% variety/85% region/ 95% vintage
What are the Australian percentage requirements for the following labels:

Varietal
Regional
Vintage
Varietal - 85%

Regional - 85%

Vintage - 95%
What are the main climate types of Australia?
Mediterranean
What are the main soil-types in Australia?
- Sand
- Clay Loam
- Terra Rossa (especially in Coonawarra)
- Limestone
What is the main soil-type in Coonawarra?
Terra Rossa
What are some viticultural details of Australia?
- Irrigation
- Canopy management
- Many vines ungrafted
- Opposite growing season to Northern Hemisphere
What are some details of vinification in Australia?
- Leaders in technology
- Blending between regions
- Acidification widely practiced
- Oak and oak alternatives used
- No chaptalization
What are the main grape varieties of Australia?
Shiraz (Syrah)
Cabernet Sauvignon
Grenache
Chardonnay
Riesling
Semillon
What are the important regions of South Australia?
- Barossa Valley
- Clare Valley
- Coonawarra
- McLaren Vale
- Riverland
What type of wine is the Barossa Valley known for?
- High quality varietal wines
- Well-regarded Shiraz
- Eden Valley and Hill of Grace
What kind of wine is Clare Valley known for?
Dry Riesling
Where is Hill of Grace?
Australia/ South Australia/ Eden Valley
What type of wines is Coonawarra known for?
Cabernet Sauvignon
What type of wines is McLaren Vale known for?
Quality Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon
What are some details of Riverland?
- Located in eastern South Australia
- Bulk wine producing region
- Heavily irrigated
What is the main region of Victoria and some details about it?
- Yarra Valley
- Cooler climate with long growing season
- Pinot Noir and Chardonnay
- Rutherglen "stickies"
What is the main bulk wine producing area of New South Wales?
Riverina
What is the most important region of New South Wales?
Hunter Valley
What are some details of the Hunter Valley?
- Two distinct sections: Upper and Lower
- Quality Chardonnay and Semillon from the Upper Valley
In the Hunter Valley, what is Semillon known as?
Hunter Valley Riesling
What is the main region of Western Australia?
Margaret River
What are some details of the Margaret River?
- Well-regarded
- Focus on high quality
- Reds and whites from Bordeaux varieties
- 2% of total Australian production
- 25% of total quality production