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32 Cards in this Set

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What are there more markings in the lung base than the apex?
b/c in the standing position there is twice as much flow to the bottom as the top
Why are the edges extremely sharp compared to the middle of the lung?
b/c there are pleural reflections over the diaphragm and mediastinum
In a CT air is ?
black, vessels are grey, muscle is light grey, and bone is white
What is a incidence where you would do an AP xray instead of PA?
patient is too sick or tied to too much equipment to come to the radiology dept. have to do it in bed
Why are AP xrays not as good as PA or lateral film?
no grid to control scatter resulting in poor image quality, scatter also exposes patient to radiation over a more widespread area
What is an important differenc in the xray of a child?
heart is relatively big b/c lungs keep growing until age 8
What is the silhouette sign?
something pathologic causes obstructoin of a normal structure due to juxtaposition of air space
Long smooth lines on a CXR are usually due to?
a process occuring adjacent to pleura
T/F: Effusions are extremely damaging to the lung.
False
Effusions can be due to?
CV disease, heart failure, trauma, hemothorax, infections, and tumor
T/F: In a normal CXR you should be able to see both sides of the diaphragm.
True - if not think effusion
Mesothelioma is characterized by ? (radiological)
pleural thickening
Structures in anterior mediastinum:
thymus & a few lymph nodes only normally
lymphoma and embryologic remnants (teratoma), and thyroid pathologically
Structures in posterior mediastinum:
nerves and lymph nodes normally
mass here is almost always neurogenic in origin
Structures in middle mediastinum
great vessels, trachea, esophagus, and most lymph nodes
Structures in superior mediastinum?
everything above aortic arch
Alveolar disease is defined by?
air bronchograms
small air filled distal bronchi which are black surrounded by consolidated lung that appears white
air bronchogram
Air bronchograms can not be seen on the ____ view.
AP
Any airspace or alveolar opacity is one of only five things:
edema, infection, hemorrhage, tumor, or alveolar proteinosis
Most FOCAL abnormalities are?
pneumonia, followed by hemorrhage
Most DIFFUSE abnormalities are?
edema
Interstitial disease is characterized by ?
fine reticular (net-like) lung markings more prominent in the periphery
Interstitial disease is best seen near ?
pleural surface
Nodules are ___ or less in diameter.
3 cm
Radiologic appearance of masses and nodules.
solid, spherical, you can draw line around abnormality
Most common benign masses?
hamartomas and amyloidosis
3 criteria to call a lung nodule benign:
1. patient under 35 w/o history of malignancy
2. calcified in a benign pattern (white on CT)
3. radiographic stability over 2 years
Radiologic appearance of emphysema:
over inflated lungs (too much black), diaphragm is flat, disorganized vessels or bulla
Radiologic appearance of restrictive lung disease:
lungs too small, generalized increase in pulmonary markings esp. on periphery
Radiography of cardiogenic edema:
heart enlarged to greater than half the width of the chest, pattern begins in perihilar region and is worse in lung base, can see air bronchograms
Radiography of ARDS:
normal heart size, pleural effusions rare, equally bad effusions in lower and upper parts of the lung due to capillary leak