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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are Alkylating Chemo Drugs?
They are:
*Cell cycle non-specific
*Breaks double helix so they can't reproduce.
*Effects Stem Cells by slowly killing them.
What are the side effects of Alkylating Drugs?
*Bone marrow suppression
*N/V - give antiemetics 1 hr before chemo
*Hemorrhagic cystitis
Name the 7 Alkylating Drugs?
1. Nitrogen Mustard
2. Nirtosoureas (Carmustine)
3. Busulfan
4. Darcarbazine
5. Platinol
6. Thiotepa
7. Cytoxan
Describe Nitrogen Mustard. (i.e. used for, nsg interventions, S/E)
- it must alkalinize in the urine.
- Check pH of urine & give Allupurinol if uric acid level is increased.
-Causes N/V - give antiemetics one hour before tx begins.
Describe Busulfan. (i.e. used for, nsg interventions, S/E)
-May increase uric acid level. Give Allupurinol to decrease.
-Affects pulmonary function test may cause Busulfan Lung.
-Assess lung for course, loud rales.
-Causes Hepatotoxicity.
Describe Platinol. (i.e. used for, nsg interventions, S/E)
- for testicular & ovarian cancer.
-Most active in G1 phase
-S/E = Reversible tubular necrosis, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, tinnitus, decreased K+, decreased Ca+, decreased Mg.
-Assess pt for dizziness, tinnitus, hearing loss, incoordination, numbness & tingling of extremities
-Follow diet low in purines (acid) to alkalanize the urine. AVOID CITRIC ACID
Describe Cytoxan. (i.e. used for, nsg interventions, S/E)
-Causes hemorrhagic cystitis, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and heart failure.
-Increase fluid intake to 2000-3000 cc/day.
-Monitor BUN, Creatnine, Liver enzymes
What are antimetabolites?
*Cell cycle specific
*Work best in the "S" phase, slows doen metabolism of cells.
-Has little effect in the G0 phase
*Replace normal protein required for DNA synthesis (they interfere with nucleic acid synthesis)
What are some side effects of antimetabolites?
-Toxic in high levels
*Toxicity occurs when the drugs accumulate in the 3rd space fluid. (ex. Pleural fluid)
Name the 3 Antimetabolite Drugs?
1. Methotrexate
2. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)
3. 6-Mercaptopurine
Describe Methotrexate. (i.e. used for, nsg interventions, S/E)
- Given for disabling psoriasis & rheumatoid arthritis.
- It's a folic acid analogues
-SE = nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, photosensitivity
-Monitor BUN, creatinine before ea tx if abnormal call MD.
-Increase fluid intake, I&O, pH of urine, specific gravity (want it to be low)
-Give Sodium Bicarb as ordered to increase urine alkalinity & volume (prevents nephrotoxicity)
What drug would you administer with high doses of Methortrexate?
-Called Leucovorin Rescue
Why is Leucovorin given?
To preserve normal cells.
and as an antidote to methotrexate toxicity.
What are the S/E of 5-FU?
-cerebellar dysfunction
* do a hearing test
Name 3 S/E of 6-Mercaptopurine.
1. hepatotoxicity
2. jaundice & progress to hepatic necrosis
3. increase in uric acid levels (so give Allupurinol & drink at least 13 8oz glasses of fluid daily)