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568 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the agreement of a particular value with the true value
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton donor
a substance that marks the end point of an acid-base titration by changing color
acid-base indicator
the equilibrium constant for a reaction in which a proton is removed from an acid by H2O to form the conjugate base and H3O+
acid dissociation constant Ka
a result of air pollution by sulfur dioxide
acid rain
a covalent oxide that dissolves in water to give an acidic solution
acidic oxide
a group of 14 elements following actinium in the periodic table, in which the 5f orbitals are being filled
actinide series
the arrangement of atoms found at the top of the potential energy barrier as a reaction proceeds from reactants to products
activated complex (transition state)
the threshold energy that must be overcome to produce a chemical reaction
activation energy
a type of polymerization in which the monomers simply add together to form the polymer, with no other products
addition polymerization
a reaction in which atoms add to a carbon-carbon multiple bond
addition reaction
the collection of one substance on the surface of another
contamination of the atmosphere, mainly by the gaseous products of transportation and production of electricity
air pollution
an organic compound in which the hydroxyl group is a substituent on a hydrocarbon
an organic compound containing the carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom
a Group 1A metal
alkali metal
a Group 2A metal
alkaline earth metal
a saturated hydrocarbon with general formula C_nH_(2n+2)
an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing a carbon-carbon double bond, general formula is C_nH_(2n)
an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing a triple carbon-carbon bond, general formula is C_nH_(2n-2)
a substance that contains a mixture of elements and has metallic properties
a form of steel containing carbon plus other metals such as Cr, Co, Mn, and Mo
alloy steel
a helium nucleus
alpha (α) particle
a common mode of decay for radioactive nuclides in which the mass number changes
alpha-particle production
an organic base derived from ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups
an organic acid in which an amino group and an R group are attached to the carbon atom next to the carboxyl group
α-amino acid
a solid with considerable disorder in its structure
amorphous solid
the unit of current equal to one coulomb of charge per second
a substance that can behave either as an acid or as a base
amphoteric substance
the quantum number relating to the shape of an atomic orbital, which can assume any integral value from 0 to n-1 for each value of n
angular momentum quantum number l
a negative ion
the electrode in a galvanic cell at which oxidation occurs
an orbital higher in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed
antibonding molecular orbital
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
aqueous solution
one of a special class of cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons, the simplest of which is benzene
aromatic hydrocarbon
a concept postulating that acids produce hydrogen ions in solution, while bases produce hydroxide ions
Arrhenius concept
the equation representing the rate constant as k = A e^(-E_a/RT), where A represents the product of the collision frequency and the steric factor, and e^(-E_a/RT) is the fraction of collisions with sufficient energy to produce a reaction
Arrhenius equation
a polymer chain in which the substituent groups such as CH_3 are randomly distributed along the chain
atactic chain
the mixture of gases that surrounds the earth's surface
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
half the distance between the nuclei in a molecule consisting of identical atoms
atomic radius
a solid that contains atoms at the lattice points
atomic solid
the weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring element
atomic weight
the principle stating that as protons are added to the nucleus to build up the elements, electrons are similarly added to hydrogen-like orbitals
aufbau principle
the transfer of an electron from one molecule to another of the same substance
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles
Avogadro's law
the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure C-12, equal to 6.022*10^(23)
Avogadro's number
a molecular model that distorts the sizes of atoms but shows bond relationships clearly
ball-and-stick model
a molecular model for metals in which electrons are assumed to travel around the metal crystal in molecular orbitals formed from the valence atomic orbitals of the metal atoms
band model
a device for measuring atmospheric pressure
a substance that produces hydroxide ions in solution, a proton acceptor
an ionic oxide that dissolves in water to produce a basic solution
basic oxide
a process for producing steel by oxidizing and removing the impurities in iron using a high-pressure blast of oxygen
basic oxygen process
a group of galvanic cells connected in series
an electron produced in radioactive decay
beta (β) particle
a decay process for radioactive nuclides in which the mass number remains constant and the atomic number changes, net effect is to change a neutron into a proton
beta-particle production
a ligand that can form two bonds to a metal ion
bidentate ligand
a reaction involving the collision of two molecules
bimolecular step
a two-element compound
binary compound
the energy required to decompose a nucleus into its component nucleons
binding energy (nuclear)
a molecule responsible for maintaining and/or reproducing life
a furnace in which iron oxide is reduced to iron metal by using a very strong blast of hot air to produce carbon monoxide from coke, and then using this gas as a reducing agent for the iron
blast furnace
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
bond energy
the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms connected by a bond; the distance where the total energy of a diatomic molecule is minimal
bond length
the difference between the number of bonding electrons and the number of antibonding electrons, divided by two, an index of bond strength
bond order
an orbital lower in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed
bonding molecular orbital
an electron pair found in the space between two atoms
bonding pair
a covalent hydride of boron
the volume of a given sample of gas at constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure
Boyle's law
a nuclear reactor in which fissionable fuel is produced while the reactor runs
breeder reactor
a model proposing that an acid is a proton donor, and a base is a proton acceptor
Brønsted-Lowry model
a solution that resists a change in pH when either hydroxide ions or protons are added
buffered solution
the ability of a buffered solution to absorb protons or hydroxide ions without a significant change in pH; determined by the magnitudes of [HA] and [A-] in the solution
buffering capacity
the science of measuring heat flow
the spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube
capillary action
a polyhydroxyl ketone or polyhydroxyl aldehyde or a polymer composed of these
an alloy of iron containing up to about 1.5% carbon
carbon steel
a stable complex hemoglobin and carbon monoxide that prevents normal oxygen uptake in the blood
the —COOH group in an organic acid
carboxyl group
an organic compound containing the carboxyl group; an acid with the general formula RCOOH
carboxylic acid
a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed
the electrode in a galvanic cell at which reduction occurs
the “rays” emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in a partially evacuated tube; a stream of electrons
cathode rays
a method in which an active metal, such as magnesium, is connected to steel to protect it from corrosion
cathodic protection
a positive ion
the driving force in a galvanic cell that pulls electrons from the reducing agent in one compartment to the oxidizing agent in the other
cell potential (emf)
a nonmetallic material made from clay and hardened by firing at high temperature; it contains minute silicate crystals suspended in a glassy cement
a self-sustaining fission process caused by the production of neutrons that proceed to split other nuclei
chain reaction (nuclear)
the volume of a given sample of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the temperature in kelvins
Charles's law
a ligand having more than one atom with a lone pair that can be used to bond to a metal ion
chelating ligand (chelate)
the force or, more accurately, the energy, that holds two atoms together in a compound
chemical bond
the change of substances into other substances through a reorganization of the atoms; a chemical reaction
chemical change
a representation of a chemical reaction showing the relative numbers of reactant and product molecules
chemical equation
a dynamic reaction system in which the concentrations of all reactants and products remain constant as a function of time
chemical equilibrium
the representation of a molecule in which the symbols for the elements are used to indicate the types of atoms present and subscripts are used to show the relative numbers of atoms
chemical formula
the area of chemistry that concerns reaction rates
chemical kinetics
the calculation of the quantities of material consumed and produced in chemical reactions
chemical stoichiometry
the quality of having nonsuperimposable mirror images
the process for producing chlorine and sodium hydroxide by electrolyzing brine in a mercury cell
chlor-alkali process
the general name for a series of methods for separating mixtures by employing a system with a mobile phase and a stationary phase
the destruction of a colloid by causing particles to aggregate and settle out
organic bases in sets of three that form the genetic code
properties of a solution that depend only on the number, and not the identity, of the solute particles
colligative properties
a model based on the idea that molecules must collide to react; used to account for the observed characteristics of reaction rates
collision model
a suspension of particles in a dispersing medium
colloid (colloidal dispersion)
the vigorous and exothermic reaction that takes place between certain substances, particularly organic compounds, and oxygen
combustion reaction
the shift in an equilibrium position caused by the addition or presence of an ion involved in the equilibrium reaction
common ion effect
an equation that shows all substances that are strong electrolytes as ions
complete ionic equation
a charged species consisting of a metal ion surrounded by ligands
complex ion
a substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes
a galvanic cell in which both compartments contain the same components, but at different concentrations
concentration cell
the process by which vapor molecules reform a liquid
a type of polymerization in which the formation of a small molecule, such as water, accompanies the extension of a polymer chain
condensation polymerization
a reaction in which two molecules are joined, accompanied by the elimination of a water molecule
condensation reaction
liquids and solids
condensed states of matter
the species formed when a proton is added to a base
conjugate acid
two species related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton
conjugate acid-base pair
what remains of an acid molecule after a proton is lost
conjugate base
a spectrum that exhibits all the wavelengths of visible light
continuous spectrum
rods in a nuclear reactor composed of substances that absorb neutrons, regulating the power level of the reactor
control rods
a metal-ligand bond resulting from the interaction of a Lewis base (the ligand) and a Lewis acid (the metal ion)
coordinate covalent bond
a compound composed of a complex ion and counterions sufficient to give no net charge
coordination compound
isomerism in a coordination compound in which the composition of the coordination sphere of a metal ion varies
coordination isomerism
the number of bonds formed between the metal ion and the ligands in a complex ion
coordination number
a polymer formed from the polymerization of more than one type of monomer
an inner electron in an atom; one not in the outermost (valence) principal quantum level
core electron
the process by which metals are oxidized in the atmosphere
E = 2.31*10^(-19)*(Q_1Q_2/r), where E is the energy of interaction between a pair of ions, expressed in joules; r is the distance between the ion centers in nm; and Q_1 and Q_2 are the numerical ion charges
Coulomb's law
anions or cations that balance the charge on the complex ion in a coordination compound
a type of bonding in which electrons are shared by atoms
covalent bonding
the mass of fissionable material required to produce a self-sustaining chain reaction
critical mass
the point on a phase diagram at which the temperature and pressure have their critical values; the end point on the liquid-vapor line
critical point
the minimum pressure required to produce liquefaction of a substance at the critical temperature
critical pressure
a reaction in which exactly one neutron from each fission event causes another fission event, thus sustaining the chain reaction
critical reaction (nuclear)
the temperature above which vapor cannot be liquefied no matter what pressure is applied
critical temperature
the existence of bonds between adjacent chains in a polymer, thus adding strength to the material
a model used to explain the magnetism and colors of coordination complexes through the splitting of the d orbital energies
crystal field model
a solid with a regular arrangement of its components
crystalline solid
a solid modeled by the closest packing of spheres with an abcabc arrangement of layers; the unit cell is face-centered cubic
cubic closest packed (ccp) structure
a process in which crushed gold ore is treated with an aqueous cyanide solution in the presence of air to dissolve the gold; pure gold is recovered by reduction of the ion to the metal
a type of particle accelerator in which an ion introduced at the center is accelerated in an expanding spiral path by the use of alternating electrical fields in the presence of a magnetic field
a series of iron containing species composed of heme and a protein; the principal electron-transfer molecules in the respiratory chain
for a mixture of gases in a container, the total pressure exerted is the sum of the partial pressures that each gas would exert if it were alone
Dalton's law of partial pressures
a group of orbitals with the same energy
degenerate orbitals
a reaction in which two hydrogen atoms are removed from adjacent carbons of a saturated hydrocarbon, giving an unsaturated hydrocarbon
dehydrogenation reaction
the breaking down of the three-dimensional structure of a protein resulting in the loss of its function
the return of nitrogen from decomposed matter to the atmosphere by bacteria that change nitrates to nitrogen gas
a property of matter representing mass per unit volume
a huge nucleotide polymer having a double-helical structure with complimentary bases on the two strands; functions are protein synthesis and the storage and transport of genetic information
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
the removal of dissolved salts from an aqueous solution
a phenomenon in which a semipermeable membrane allows transfer of both solvent molecules and small solute molecules and ions
a type of magnetism, associated with paired electrons, that causes a substance to be repelled from the inducing magnetic field
an expression that gives the rate of a reaction as a function of concentrations; often called the rate law
differential rate law
the scattering of light from a regular array of points or lines, producing constructive and destructive interference
the mixing of gases
the process of adding solvent to lower the concentration of solute in a solution
a molecule formed by the joining of two identical monomers
the attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up so that the positive and negative ends are close to each other
dipole-dipole attraction
a property of a molecule whose charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge
dipole moment
a furnace in which iron oxide is reduced to iron metal using milder reaction conditions than in a blast furnace
direct reduction furnace
a sugar formed from two monosaccharides joined by a glycoside linkage
a reaction in which a given element is both oxidized and reduced
disproportionation reaction
a method for separating the components of a liquid mixture that depends on differences in the ease of vaporization of the components
an S—S bond that stabilizes the tertiary structure of many proteins
disulfide linkage
a bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
double bond
a cell used for electrolyzing molten sodium chloride
Downs cell
a common battery used in calculators, watches, radios, and tape players
dry cell battery
the statement that light exhibits both wave and particulate properties
dual nature of light
the passage of a gas through a tiny orfice into an evacuated chamber
the ability to conduct electric current
electrical conductivity
the study of the interchange of chemical and electrical energy
a process that involves forcing a current through a cell to cause a nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur
a material that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts an electric current
a cell that uses electrical energy to produce a chemical change that would otherwise not occur spontaneously
electrolytic cell
radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum
electromagnetic radiation
a negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom
the energy change associated with the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom
electron affinity
a process in which one of the inner-orbital electrons in an atom is captured by the nucleus
electron capture
a quantum number representing one of the two possible values for the electron spin; either +1/2 or -1/2
electron spin quantum number
the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means
a reaction whose rate law can be written from its molecularity
elementary step
Einstein's equation proposing that energy has mass; E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light
E = mc^2
the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
empirical formula
isomers that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other
the point in a titration at which the indicator changes color
refers to a reaction where energy (as heat) flows into the system
the capacity to do work or to cause heat flow
a property of a system equal to E + PV, where E is the internal energy of the system, P is the pressure of the system, and V is the volume of the system; at constant pressure its change equals the energy flow as heat
the enthalpy change that occurs to melt a solid at its melting point
enthalpy (heat) of fusion
a thermodynamic function that measures randomness or disorder
a large molecule, usually a protein, that catalyzes biological molecules
the value obtained when equilibrium concentrations of the chemical species are substituted in the equilibrium expression
equilibrium constant
the expression (from the law of mass action) obtained by multiplying the product concentrations and dividing by the multiplied reactant concentrations, with each concentration raised to a power represented by the coefficient in the balanced equation
equilibrium expression
the position where the free energy of a reaction system has its lowest possible value
equilibrium point (thermodynamic definition)
a particular set of equilibrium concentrations
equilibrium position
the point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution being titrated
equivalence point (stoichiometric point)
an organic compound produced by the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol
refers to a reaction where energy (as heat) flows out of the system
expresses a number as N*10^M, a convenient method for representing a very large or very small number and for easily indicating the number of significant figures
exponential notation
a constant representing the charge on one mole of electrons; 96485 coulombs
a method for separating the components of a mixture containing a solid and a liquid
the energy of the universe is constant; same as the law of conservation of energy
1st law of thermodynamics
the process of using a neutron to split a heavy nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers
a method of separating the mineral particles in an ore from the gangue that depends on the greater wettability of the mineral pieces
flotation process
the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion derived from a specific set of rules
formal charge
the equilibrium constant for each step of the formation of a complex ion by the addition of an individual ligand to a metal ion or complex ion in aqueous solution
formation constant (stability constant)
an equation representing a reaction in solution showing the reactants and products in undissociated form, whether they are strong or weak electrolytes
formula equation
coal, petroleum, or natural gas; consists of carbon-based molecules derived from decomposition of once-living organisms
fossil fuel
the recovery of sulfur from underground deposits by melting it with hot water and forcing it to the surface by air pressure
Frasch process
the thermodynamic function equal to H-TS; under certain conditions equal to the maximum useful work
free energy
a species with an unpaired electron
free radical
the number of waves (or cycles) per second that pass a given point in space
a galvanic cell for which the reactants are continuously supplied
fuel cell
an atom or group of atoms in hydrocarbon derivatives that contains elements in addition to carbon and hydrogen
functional group
the process of combining two light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus
a device in which chemical energy from a spontaneous redox reaction is changed to electrical energy that can be used to do work
galvanic cell
a process in which steel is coated with zinc to prevent corrosion
a high-energy photon
gamma (γ) ray
the impurities (such as clay or sand) in an ore
an instrument that measures the rate of radioactive decay based on the ions and electrons produced as a radioactive particle passes through a gas-filled chamber
Geiger(-Müller) counter
a given segment of the DNA molecule that contains the code for a specific protein
isomerism in which atoms or groups of atoms can assume different positions around a rigid ring or bond
geometrical (cis-trans) isomerism
an amorphous solid obtained when silica is mixed with other compounds, heated above its melting point, and then cooled rapidly
an electrode for measuring pH from the potential difference that develops when it is dipped into an aqueous solution containing H+ ions
glass electrode
a C—O—C bond formed between the rings of two cyclic monosaccharides by the elimination of water
glycosidic linkage
the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles
Graham's law of effusion
a warming effect exerted by the earth's atmosphere (particularly CO2 and H2O) due to thermal energy retained by absorption of infrared radiation
greenhouse effect
the lowest possible energy state of an atom or molecule
ground state
a vertical column of elements having the same valence electron configuration and showing similar properties
group (of the periodic table)
the manufacture of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, carried out at high pressure and high temperature with the aid of a catalyst
Haber process
the time required for the number of nuclides in a radioactive sample to reach half of the original value
half-life (of a radioactive sample)
the time required for a reactant to reach half of its original concentration
half-life (of a reactant)
the two parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one representing oxidation, the other reduction
a Group 7A element
the addition of halogen atoms to unsaturated hydrocarbons
water from natural sources that contains relatively large concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions
hard water
energy transferred between two objects due to a temperature difference between them
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of an object by one degree Celsius
heat capacity
the enthalpy change that occurs to melt a solid at its melting point
heat of fusion
the enthalpy change associated with placing gaseous molecules or ions in water; the sum of the energy needed to expand the solvent and the energy released from the solvent-solute interactions
heat of hydration
the enthalpy change associated with dissolving a solute in a solvent; the sum of the energies needed to expand both solvent and solute in a solution and the energy released from the solvent-solute interactions
heat of solution
the energy required to vaporize one mole of a liquid at a pressure of one atmosphere
heat of vaporization
a plot of temperature versus time for a substance where energy is added at a constant rate
heating curve
a principle stating that there is a fundamental limitation to how precisely both the position and momentum of a particle can be known at a given time
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
an iron complex
a biomolecule composed of four myoglobin-like units (proteins plus heme) that can bind and transport four oxygen molecules in the blood
an equation giving the relationship between pH of an acid-base system and the concentrations of base and acid: pH = pK_a + log([base]/[acid])
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
the amount of gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solution
Henry's law
in going from a particular set of reactants a particular set of products, the enthalpy change is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or a series of steps; in summary, enthalpy is a state function
Hess's law
an equilibrium involving reactants and/or products in more than one phase
heterogeneous equilibrium
a structure composed of closest packed spheres with an ababab arrangement of layers; the unit cell is hexagonal
hexagonal closest packed (hcp) structure
an equilibrium system where all reactants and products are in the same phase
homogeneous equilibrium
a polymer formed from the polymerization of only one type of monomer
the lowest energy configuration for an atom is the one having the minimum number of unpaired electrons allowed by the Pauli exclusion principle in a particular set of degenerate orbitals, with all unpaired electrons having parallel spins
Hund's rule
a set of atomic orbitals on a given atom to form special atomic orbitals for bonding
hybrid orbitals
a mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form special atomic orbitals for bonding
the interaction between solute particles and water molecules
a binary compound containing hydrogen, containing the H- ion, classes are covalent, interstitial, and ionic
a compound composed of carbon and hydrogen
an organic molecule that contains one or more elements in addition to carbon and hydrogen
hydrocarbon derivative
unusually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among molecules in which hydrogen is bonded to a highly electronegative atom
hydrogen bonding
a reaction in which hydrogen is added, with a catalyst present, to a carbon-carbon multiple bond
hydrogenation reaction
an aqueous solution of a hydrogen halide
hydrohalic acid
a process for extracting metals from ores by use of aqueous chemical solutions, involving selective leaching and selective precipitation
the H30+ ion, a hydrated proton
hydronium ion
one or more assumptions put forth to explain the observed behavior of nature
an equation of state for a gas, where the state of the gas is its condition at a given time; expressed by PV=nRT, where P is the pressure, V the volume, n the number of moles of gas, R the universal gas constant, and T the absolute temperature, expresses behavior approached by real gases
ideal gas law
a solution whose vapor pressure is directly proportional to the mole fraction of solvent present
ideal solution
a chemical that changes color and is used to mark the endpoint of a titration
an expression that shows the concentration of a reactant as a function of time
integrated rate law
a compound formed by the reaction of one halogen with another
interhalogen compound
a species that is neither a reactant or a product but that is formed and consumed in the reaction sequence
relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules
intermolecular forces
a property of a system that can be changed by a flow of work, heat or both: ∆E = q + w, where q is heat and w is work
internal energy
an atom or group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge
the process in which an ion-exchange resin removes unwanted ions and replaces them with sodium ions, which do not interfere with soap and detergent action
ion exchange (water softening)
a phenomenon occurring in solution when oppositely charged ions aggregate and behave as a single particle
ion pairing
the equilibrium constant for the auto-ionization of water; equals 1.0*10^(-14) at 25°C
ion-product (dissociation) constant K_w
an electrode sensitive to the concentration of a particular ion in solution
ion-selective electrode
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
ionic bonding
a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form a cation and an anion
ionic compound (binary)
a solid containing cations and anions that dissolves in water to give a solution containing the separated ions which are mobile and thus free to conduct electrical current
ionic solid (salt)
any real process
irreversible process
ions containing the same number of electrons
isoelectronic ions
species with the same formula but different properties
a polymer chain in which the substituent groups such as CH3 are all arranged on the same side of the chain
isotactic chain
solutions having identical osmotic pressures
isotonic solutions
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
an organic compound containing the carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms
energy due to the motion of an object, dependent on the mass of the object and the square of its velocity 1/2*mv^2
kinetic energy
a model that assumes that an ideal gas is composed of tiny particles (molecules) in constant motion
Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)
the decrease in the atomic radii of the lanthanide series elements, going from left to right in the periodic table
lanthanide contraction
a group of 14 elements following lanthanum in the periodic table, in which the 4f orbitals are being filled
lanthanide series
a three-dimensional system of points designating the positions of the centers of the components of a solid (atoms, ions or molecules)
the energy change occurring when separated gaseous ions are packed together to form an ionic solid
lattice energy
energy can be converted from one form to another but can be neither created or destroyed
law of conservation of energy
mass is neither created or destroyed
law of conservation of mass
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass
law of definite proportions
a general description of the equilibrium condition; it defines the equilibrium constant expression
law of mass action
a law stating that when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of masses of the second element that combine with one gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers
law of multiple proportions
the extraction of metals from ores using aqueous chemical solutions
a battery (used in cars) in which the anode is lead, the cathode is lead coated with lead dioxide, and the electrolyte is a sulfuric acid solution
lead storage battery
if a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the position of the equilibrium will shift in a direction that tends to reduce the effect of that change
Le Châtelier's principle
an electron-pair acceptor
Lewis acid
an electron-pair donor
Lewis base
a diagram of a molecule showing how the valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule
Lewis structure
a neutral molecule or ion having a lone pair of electrons that can be used to form a bond to a metal ion; a Lewis base
a water-softening method in which lime and soda ash are added to water to remove calcium and magnesium ions by precipitation
lime-soda process
the reactant that is completely consumed when a reaction is run to completion
limiting reactant/reagent
a spectrum showing only certain discrete wavelengths
line spectrum
a type of particle accelerator in which a changing electrical field is used to accelerate a positive ion along a linear path
linear accelerator
isomerism involving a complex ion where the ligands are all the same but the point of attachment of at least one of the ligands differs
linkage isomerism
the transformation of a gas into a liquid
a model which assumes that a molecule is composed of atoms that are bound together by sharing pairs of electrons using the atomic orbitals of the bound atoms
localized electron (LE) model
the forces, existing among noble gas atoms and nonpolar molecules, that involve an accidental dipole that induces a momentary dipole in a neighbor
London dispersion forces
an electron pair that is localized on a given atom; an electron pair not involved in bonding
lone pair
the quantum number relating to the orientation of an orbital in space relative to the other orbitals with the same l quantum number, can have integral values between -l and l including zero
magnetic quantum number m_l
elements in groups labeled 1A, 2A, ..., 8A in the periodic table, filling s and p orbitals
main-group (representative) elements
the components present in relatively large amounts in a solution
major species
a device for measuring the pressure of a gas in a container
the quantity of matter in an object
the change in mass occurring when a nucleus is formed from its component nucleons
mass defect
the total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus of an atom
mass number
the percent by mass of a component of a mixture or of a given element in a compound
mass percent
an instrument used to determine the relative masses of atoms by the deflection of their ions on a magnetic field
mass spectrometer
the material of the universe
a special RNA molecule built in the cell nucleus that migrates into the cytoplasm and participate in protein synthesis
messenger RNA (mRNA)
an element that gives up electrons relatively easily and is lustrous, malleable, and a good conductor of heat and electricity
elements along the division line in the periodic table between metals and nonmetals, exhibiting both metallic and nonmetallic properties
metalloids (semimetals)
the process of separating a metal from its ore and preparing it for use
a unit of pressure, also called a torr
millimeters of mercury (mmHg)
a relatively pure compound as found in nature
a set of assumptions put forth to explain the observed behavior of matter, usually involving assumptions about the behavior of individual atoms or molecules
model (theory)
a substance used in a nuclear reactor to slow down the neutrons
a constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the change in boiling point as a function of solution molality; used in molecular weight determinations
molal boiling-point elevation constant
a constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the change in freezing point as a function of solution molality; used in molecular weight determinations
molal freezing-point depression constant
the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent in a solution
the energy needed to raise the temperature of one mole of a substance by one degree Celsius
molar heat capacity
the mass in grams of one mole of molecules or formula units of a substance, also called molecular weight
molar mass
the volume of one mole of an ideal gas, equal to 22.42 liters at STP
molar volume
moles of solute per volume of solution in liters
the number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure C-12, divided by Avogadro's number, represents 6.022*10^(23)
mole (mol)
the ratio of the number of moles of a given component in a mixture to the total number of moles in the mixture
mole fraction
the ratio of moles of one substance to moles of another substance in a balanced chemical equation
mole ratio (stoichiometry)
the exact formula of a molecule, giving the types of atoms and the number of each type
molecular formula
a model that regards a molecule as a collection of nuclei and electrons, where the electrons are assumed to occupy orbitals much as they do in atoms, but having the orbitals extend over the entire molecule; electrons are assumed to be delocalized rather than always located between a given pair of atoms
molecular orbital (MO) model
orientations of molecules during collisions, some of which can lead to reaction while others cannot
molecular orientations (kinetics)
a solid composed of neutral molecules at the lattice points
molecular solid
the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule
molecular structure
the number of species that must collide to produce the reaction represented by an elementary step in a reaction mechanism
a bonded collection of two or more atoms of the same or different elements
a ligand that can form one bond to a metal ion
monodentate (unidentate) ligand
an acid with one acidic proton
monoprotic acid
a polyhydroxy ketone or aldehyde containing from three to nine carbon atoms
monosaccharide (simple sugar)
an oxygen-storing biomolecule consisting of a heme complex and a protein
a statement that expresses generally observed behavior
natural law
an equation relating the potential of an electrochemical cell to the concentrations of the cell components: emf = emf° - .0591/n*log(Q) at 25°C
Nernst equation
an equation for a reaction in solution, where strong electrolytes are written as ions, showing only those components that are directly involved in the chemical change
net ionic equation
an atomic solid containing strong directional covalent bonds
network solid
an acid-base reaction
neutralization reaction
a particle in the atomic nucleus with mass virtually equal to the proton's but no charge
the conversion of N2 to nitrogen-containing compounds, followed by the return of nitrogen gas to the atmosphere by natural decay processes
nitrogen cycle
the process of transforming N2 to nitrogen-containing compounds useful to plants
nitrogen fixation
bacteria in the root nodules of plants that can convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia and other nitrogen-containing compounds useful to plants
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
a Group 8A element
noble gas
an area of an orbital having zero electron probability
a substance that, when dissolved in water, gives a nonconducting solution
an element not exhibiting metallic characteristics; accepts electrons from a metal
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is exactly one atmosphere
normal boiling point
the number of equivalents of a substance dissolved in a liter of solution
an atom having a dense center of positive charge with electrons moving around the outside
nuclear atom
the change of one element into another
nuclear transformation
a particle in an atomic nucleus, either a neutron or a proton
a monomer of the nucleic acids composed of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and phosphoric acid
the small, dense center of positive charge in an atom
the general term applied to each unique atom
the observation that atoms of nonmetals tend to form the most stable molecules when they are surrounded by eight electrons (to fill their valence orbitals)
octet rule
a process for producing steel by oxidizing and removing the impurities in molten iron using external heat and a blast of air or oxygen
open hearth process
isomerism in which the isomers have opposite effects on plane-polarized light
optical isomerism
a specific wave function for an electron in an atom, the square of which gives the probability distribution for the electron
a splitting of the d orbitals of the metal ion in a complex such that the orbitals pointing at the ligands have higher energies than those pointing between the ligands
d-orbital splitting
the positive or negative exponent, determined by experiment, of the reactant concentration in a rate law
order (of reactant)
an acid with a carbon-atom backbone; often contains the carboxyl group
organic acid
the study of carbon-containing compounds (typically chains of carbon atoms) and their properties
organic chemistry
the flow of solvent into a solution through a semipermeable membrane
the pressure that must be applied to a solution to stop osmosis, Π = MRT
osmotic pressure
a commercial process for producing nitric acid by the oxidation of ammonia
Ostwald process
an increase in oxidation state (a loss of electrons)
a reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred
oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction
a concept that provides a way to keep track of electrons in oxidation-reduction reactions according to certain rules
oxidation states
a reactant that accepts electrons from another reactant
oxidizing agent (electron acceptor)
an acid in which the acidic proton is attached to an oxygen atom
O3, the form of elemental oxygen in addition to the much more common O2
a type of induced magnetism, associated with unpaired electrons, that causes a substance to be attracted into the inducing magnetic field
the independent pressures exerted by different gases in a mixture
partial pressures
a device used to accelerate nuclear particles to very high speeds
particle accelerator
the SI unit of pressure, equal to newtons per meter squared
in a given atom no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Pauli exclusion principle
the bond resulting from the condensation reaction between amino acids, or —C(=O)—N—
peptide linkage
the ratio of the amount of a substance that is dissociated at equilibrium to the initial concentration of the substance in a solution, multiplied by 100
percent dissociation
the actual yield of a product as a percentage of the theoretical yield
percent yield
a chart showing all the elements arranged in columns with similar chemical properties
periodic table
a plot showing the pH of a solution being analyzed as a function of the amount of titrant added
pH curve
a log scale based on 10 and equal to -log[H+]; a convenient way to represent solution acidity
pH scale
a convenient way of representing the phases of a substance in a closed system as a function of temperature and pressure
phase diagram
the benzene molecule minus one hydrogen atom
phenyl group
air pollution produced by the action of light on oxygen, nitrogen oxides, and unburned fuel from auto exhaust to form ozone and other pollutants
photochemical smog
a quantum of electromagnetic radiation
a change in the form of a substance, but not in its chemical composition; chemical bonds are not broken
physical change
a covalent bond in which the parallel p orbitals share an electron pair occupying the space above and below the line joining the atoms
pi (π) bond
the constant relating the change in energy for a system to the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation absorbed or emitted
Planck's constant
a covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts them more strongly than the other
polar covalent bond
a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment
polar molecule
an ion containing a number of atoms
polyatomic ion
an atom with more than one electron
polyelectronic atom
a large, usually chainlike molecule built from many small molecules (monomers)
a process in which many small molecules (monomers) are joined together to form a large molecule
a polymer formed from amino acids joined together by peptide linkages
an acid with more than one acidic proton, dissociating in a stepwise manner, one proton at a time
polyprotic acid
a disk in a tube connecting two different solutions in a galvanic cell that allows ion flow without extensive mixing of the solutions
porous disk
a planar ligand with a central ring structure and various substituent groups at the edges of the ring
a type of probability that depends on the number of arrangements in space that yield a particular state
positional probability
a mode of nuclear decay in which a particle is formed having the same mass as an electron but opposite charge; the net effect is to turn a proton into a neutron
positron production
energy due to position or composition
potential energy
a reaction in which an insoluble substance forms and separates from the solution
precipitation reaction
the degree of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility of a measurement
the order (sequence) of amino acids in the protein chain
primary structure (of a protein)
the quantum number relating to the size and energy of an orbital; it can have any positive integer value
principal quantum number n
the square of the wave function indicating the probability of finding an electron at a particular point in space
probability distribution
a substance resulting from a chemical reaction, shown to the right of the arrow in a chemical equation
a positively charged particle in an atomic nucleus
a substance with constant composition
pure substance
recovery of a metal from its ore by treatment at high temperatures
the concept that energy can occur only in discrete units called quanta
the unit of radiation dosage corresponding to 10^(-2) J of energy deposited per kilogram of tissue
the spontaneous decomposition of a nucleus to form a different nucleus
radioactive decay (radioactivity)
a method for dating ancient wood or cloth based on the rate of radioactive decay of the nuclide C-14
radiocarbon dating (C-14 dating)
a radioactive nuclide, introduced into an organism for diagnostic purposes, whose pathway can be traced by monitoring its radioactivity
an error that has an equal probability of being high or low
random error
the vapor pressure of a solution is directly proportional to the mole fraction of solvent present
Raoult's law
the proportionality constant in the relationship between reaction rate and reactant concentrations
rate constant
the change in the number of radioactive nuclides in a sample per unit time
rate of decay
the slowest step in a reaction mechanism, the one determining the overall rate
rate-determining step
an expression that shows how the rate of reaction depends on the concentration of reactants
rate law (differential rate law)
a starting substance in a chemical reaction, appears to the left of the arrow in a chemical equation
the series of elementary steps involved in a chemical reaction
reaction mechanism
a quotient obtained by applying the law of mass action to initial concentrations rather than to equilibrium concentrations
reaction quotient Q
the change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit time
reaction rate
the part of a nuclear reactor where the fission reaction takes place
reactor core
a reactant that donates electrons to another substance to reduce the oxidation state of one of its atoms
reducing agent (electron donor)
a decrease in oxidation state (a gain of electrons)
a unit of radiation dosage that accounts for both the energy of the dose and its effectiveness in causing biological damage
rem (from roentgen equivalent of man)
a condition occurring when more than one valid Lewis structure can be written for a particular molecule; the actual structure is not any one, but the average of all of the possible structures
the process occurring when the external pressure on a solution causes a net flow of solvent through a semipermeable membrane from the solution to the solvent
reverse osmosis
a cyclic process carried out by a hypothetical pathway, which leaves the universe exactly the same as it was before the process; purely theoretical
reversible process
a nucleotide polymer that transmits the genetic information stored in DNA to the ribosomes for protein synthesis
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a process of converting sulfide minerals to oxides by heating in air at temperatures below their melting points
the square root of the average of the squares of the velocities of individual gas particles
root mean square velocity
an ionic compound
a U-tube containing an electrolyte that connects the two compartments of a galvanic cell, allowing ion flow without extensive mixing of the different solutions
salt bridge
the process of studying natural phenomena, involving observations, forming laws and theories, and testing of theories by experimentation
scientific method
an instrument that measures radioactive decay by sensing the flashes of light produced in a substance by the radiation
scintillation counter
in any spontaneous process, there is always an increase in the entropy of the universe
2nd law of thermodynamics
the three-dimensional structure of the protein chain (α helix or β pleated sheet)
secondary structure (of a protein)
a method of separating metal ions from an aqueous mixture by using a reagent whose anion forms a precipitate with only one or a few of the ions in the mixture
selective precipitation
a substance conducting only a slight electrical current at room temperature, but showing increasing conductivity at higher temperatures
a membrane that allows solvent but not solute molecules to pass through
semipermeable membrane
International System of units based on the metric system and units derived from the metric system
SI system
the hydrocarbon group on an amino acid represented by H, CH3, or a more complex substituent
side chain (of an amino acid)
a covalent bond in which the electron pair is shared in an area centered on a line running between the atoms
sigma (σ) bond
the certain digits and the first uncertain digit of a measurement
significant figures
the fundamental silicon-oxygen compound, which has the empirical formula SiO2, and forms the basis of quartz and certain types of sand
salts that contain metal cations and polyatomic silicon-oxygen anions that are usually polymeric
a bond in which one pair of electrons is shared by two atoms
single bond
a metallurgical process that involves reducing metal ions to the free metal
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given volume of solvent at a given temperature
the constant for the equilibrium expression representing the dissolving of an ionic solid in water
solubility product constant
a substance dissolved in a liquid to form a solution
a homogeneous mixture
the dissolving medium in a solution
radioactive damage to an organism resulting in its sickness or death
somatic damage
a model of a molecule showing the relative sizes of the atoms and their relative orientations
space-filling model
the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius
specific heat capacity
ions present in solution that do not participate directly in a reaction
spectator ions
a listing of ligands in order based on their ability to produce d-orbital splitting
spectrochemical series
the spontaneous splitting of a heavy nuclide into two lighter nuclides
spontaneous fission
a process that occurs without outside intervention
spontaneous process
a unit of pressure equal to 760 mm Hg
standard atmosphere
the enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound at 25°C from its elements, with all substances in their standard states at that temperature
standard enthalpy of formation
the change in free energy that will occur for one unit of reaction if the reactants in their standard states are converted to products in their standard states
standard free energy change
the change in free energy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a substance from its constituent elements with all reactants and products in their standard states
standard free energy of formation
a platinum conductor in contact with 1 M H+ ions and bathed by hydrogen gas at one atmosphere
standard hydrogen electrode
the potential of a half-reaction under standard state conditions, as measured against the potential of the standard hydrogen electrode
standard reduction potential
a solution whose concentration is accurately known
standard solution
a reference state for a specific substance defined according to a set of conventional definitions
standard state
the condition 0°C and 1 atmosphere of pressure
standard temperature and pressure (STP)
a stationary wave as on a string of a musical instrument; in the wave mechanical model, the electron in the hydrogen atom
standing wave
a property that is independent of the pathway
state function (property)
the three different forms in which matter can exist; solid, liquid, gas
states of matter
isomerism in which all the bonds in the isomers are the same but the spatial arrangements of the atoms are different
the factor (always less than 1) that reflects the fraction of collisions with orientations that can produce a chemical reaction
steric factor
quantities of reactants mixed in exactly the correct amounts so that all are used up at the same time
stoichiometric quantities
an acid that completely dissociates to produce H+ ion and the conjugate base
strong acid
a metal hydroxide salt that completely dissociates into its ions in water
strong base
a material that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution that conducts an electric current very efficiently
strong electrolyte
the representation of a molecule in which the relative positions of the atoms are shown and the bonds are indicated by lines
structural formula
isomerism in which the isomers contain the same atoms but one or more bonds differ
structural isomerism
a reaction in which less than one neutron causes another fission event and the process dies out
subcritical reaction (nuclear)
the process by which a substance goes directly from the solid to the gaseous state without passing through the liquid state
a set of orbitals with a given azimuthal quantum number
a reaction in which an atom, usually a halogen, replaces a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon
substitution reaction (hydrocarbons)
the process of cooling a liquid below its freezing point without its changing to a solid
a reaction in which more than one neutron from each fission event causes another fission event; the process rapidly escalates to a violent explosion
supercritical reaction (nuclear)
the process of heating a liquid above its boiling point without its boiling
a compound containing the O_2- anion
the resistance of a liquid to an increase in its surface area
surface tension
everything in the universe surrounding a thermodynamic system
a polymer chain in which the substituent groups such as CH3 are arranged on alternate sides of the chain
syndiotactic chain
synthetic gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, obtained by coal gasification
that part of the universe on which attention is to be focused
system (thermodynamic)
an error that always occurs in the same direction
systematic error
a process in steel production that fine-tunes the proportions of carbon crystals and cementite by heating to intermediate temperatures followed by rapid cooling
a reaction involving the simultaneous collision of three molecules
termolecular step
the overall shape of a protein, long and narrow or globular, maintained by different types of intramolecular interactions
tertiary structure (of a protein)
the maximum amount of a given product that can be formed when the limiting reactant is completely consumed
theoretical yield
a set of assumptions put forth to explain some aspect of the observed behavior of matter
the oxygen-depleting effect on lakes and rivers of using water for industrial cooling and returning it to its natural source at a higher temperature
thermal pollution
the potential energy of a particular nucleus as compared to the sum of the potential energies of its component protons and neutrons
thermodynamic stability (nuclear)
the study of energy and its interconversions
a substance that when molded to a certain shape under appropriate conditions can later be remelted
thermoplastic polymer
a substance that when molded to a certain shape under pressure and high temperatures cannot be softened again or dissolved
thermoset polymer
the entropy of a perfect crystal at 0 K is zero
third law of thermodynamics
a technique in which one solution is used to analyze another
another name for millimeter of mercury (mm Hg)
a small RNA fragment that finds specific amino acids and attaches them to the protein chain as dictated by the codons in mRNA
transfer RNA (tRNA)
several series of elements in which inner orbitals (d or f orbitals) are being filled
transition metals
the elements beyond uranium that are made artificially by particle bombardment
transuranium elements
a bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
triple bond
the point on a phase diagram at which all three states of a substance are present
triple point
the scattering of light by particles in a suspension
Tyndall effect
the characteristic that any measurement involves estimates and cannot be exactly reproduced
uncertainty (in measurement)
a reaction step involving only one molecule
unimolecular step
the smallest repeating unit of a lattice
unit cell
an equivalence statement between units used for converting from one unit to another
unit factor method
the combined proportionality constant in the ideal gas law; .08206 L*atm/(K*mol) or 8.3145 J/(K*mol)
universal gas constant
the electrons in the outermost principal quantum level of an atom
valence electrons
a model whose main postulate is that the structure around a given atom in a molecule is determined prinicipally by minimizing electron-pair repulsions
valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) model
a mathematical expression for describing the behavior of real gases
Van der Waals equation
the ratio of moles of particles in solution to moles of solute dissolved
Van't Hoff factor
the pressure of the vapor over a liquid at equilibrium
vapor pressure
the change in state that occurs when a liquid evaporates to form a gas
vaporization (evaporation)
the resistance of a liquid to flow
the unit of electrical potential defined as one joule of work per coulomb of charge transferred
an instrument that measures cell potential by drawing electric current through a known resistance
a process involving titration of one solution with another
volumetric analysis
a process in which sulfur is added to rubber and the mixture is heated, causing cross-linking of the polymer chains and thus adding strength to the rubber
a function of the coordinates of an electron's position in three-dimensional space that describes the properties of the electron
wave function
a model for the hydrogen atom in which the electron is assumed to behave as a standing wave
wave mechanical model
the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
an acid that dissociates only slightly in aqueous solution
weak acid
a base that reacts with water to produce hydroxide ions to only a slight extent in aqueous solution
weak base
a material which, when dissolved in water, gives a solution that conducts only a small electric current
weak electrolyte
the force exerted on an object by gravity
force acting over a distance
a technique for establishing the structure of crystalline solids by directing X rays of a single wavelength at a crystal and obtaining a diffraction pattern from which interatomic spaces can be determined
x-ray diffraction
the area encompassing the stable nuclides on a plot of their positions as a function of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus
zone of nuclear stability
a metallurgical process for obtaining a highly pure metal that depends on continuously melting the impure material and recrystallizing the pure metal
zone refining