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28 Cards in this Set

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The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom;
what identifies an element.
Atomic Number
The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mass Number
Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of
neutrons.
Isotopes
One-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)
The weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally
occurring sample of the element.
Atomic Mass
An arrangement of all the elements according to the atomic
number.
Periodic Table
The horizontal rows of the periodic table.
Periods or Rows
The vertical column of elements in the periodic table.
Groups or Families
When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic
number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and
chemical properties.
Periodic Law
Group A elements – they exhibit a wide range of both
physical and chemical properties.
Groups 1, 2, 13-18
Located to the left of the stair step – they have a high
electrical conductivity and a high luster.
Metals
Located to the right of the stair step (plus H) – they aren’t
lustrous and don’t conduct electricity.
Nonmetals
Elements located on the stair step line.
Metalloids or Semi-metals
Located in group 1A, such as Na or K.
Alkali Metals
Located in group 2A, such as Mg or Ca.
Alkaline Earth Metals
These elements are wedged between the group A
elements, such as Fe.
Transition Metals
These elements are located at the bottom of the periodic
table – they are also known as the rare earth elements.
Inner Transition Metals
Located in group 7A, like Cl.
Halogens
These have unstable nuclei
Radioisotopes
This occurs when two nuclei join to form 1. The process
that is ongoing in our Sun.
Fusion
Most of the mass of an atom is found here.
Nucleus
This occurs when a nucleus splits in 2. It is the process in
nuclear reactors and hydrogen bombs.
Fission
This is the smallest particle of an element that retains the
properties of that element.
Atom
Know the three forms of radiation and the relative strengths of
each. Which penetrates the most? Which the least?
Alpha, Beta, Gamma
Alpha is the weakest (least penetrating) and Gamma is the strongest (most penetrating)
Mendeleev
Created the periodic table
JJ Thompson
electron
Rutherford
nucleus
Millikan
mass of an electron