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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
which has sour taste acid or base?
which has bitter taste acid or base?
who proposed the first successful concept of acid and base? and what did he say.
Arrhenius, he defined acids and bases in terms of the effect of these substances have on water..acids increase H+ ion in water and bases increase OH- ion in water
HCL is an acid or base?
NaOH is an acid or base?
Hydronium ion
what is the formation of hydronium ion?
the oxygen in water has unshared pair of electrons. Oxygen uses one pair of unshared electron to form an additional bond with a third hyrogen
carboxylic acids are acids or bases
What did Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry say about acid and base?
acid and base reactions can be seen as proton-transfer reactions
proton donor (H+ donor)
proton acceptor (OH- acceptor)
amines are acids or bases
where does proton come from in amines?
when an amine is placed is dissolved in water, the proton comes from water and OH- gets left behind
define pKa (equilibrium constant for reversible reaction)
the tendency of any acid (HA) to lose a proton and form its conjugate base (A-)
a combination of substances...usually a weak acid and its conjugat base...that act together to prevent a drastic change in ph when either another acid or base is added
chiral carbon atom
a carbon bonded to four different groups
enantiomers or optical isomers
two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule
isomers that have the same molecular and structural formala, but different spatial (3-D) arrangements of their atoms
all molecules with chiral center are what?
optically active
amphoteric (ampholytes)
substances having dual nature
isoelectric point
the ph at which a sample of an amino acid has equal numbers of + and - charges
when an amino acid is dissolved in water, it exists in solution as the dipolar ion
amino terminal (N-terminal)
the amino acid with the free alpha amino group at the end of a protein
carboxyl terminal (C-terminal)
the amino acid with the free alpha carboxyl group at the end of a protein
primary structure
a description of the colvalent backbone of a polymer (macromolecule), including the sequence of monomeric subunits and any interchain and interchain colvanlent bonds
secondary structure
the residue by residue conformation of the backbone of a polymer
tertiary structure
the 3-D conformation of a polymer in its native folded state
quaternary structure
the 3-D structure of a multisubunit protein; particularly the manner in which the subunits fit together
peptide bond
amide linkage between the alpha carboxyl of one amino acid and the alpha amino group of another amino acid
amphipathic compounds
contain regions that are polar(or charged) and regions that are nonpolar
the forces that hold the nonpolar regions of the molecules together
globular proteins
water soluble proteins whose chain is folded in a compact shape with hydrophilic groups on the outside
native protein
a protein with the shape (sec.,tertiary,quaternary structure) in which it exists naturally in living organisms
simple protein
a protein composed only of amino acids
conjugated protein
a protein that incorporates one or more non-amino acid units in its structure
fibrous protein
tough, insoluble proteins whose protein chains form fibers or sheets; they are composed mainly of either alph helices or B sheets
the loss of secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structure due to disruption of noncovalent interactions and/or disulfide bonds which causes loss of function of the protein
what are peptides
are linear polymers of amino acids connected by peptide bonds
what are proteins
are linear polymers of amino acids connected by peptide bonds
hydrophobic interaction
the force that holds nonpolar molecules together
ionic interaction
the interaction between charged side chains of amino acids
list the 5 hydrophobic aminos
valine, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine
list the 4 ionic interaction aminos
aspartic acid and lysine(attractive) and glutamic acid and aspartic acid (repulsive)
what is the function of oxytocin?
affects uterine smooth muscle, increase frequency and duration during uterine contraction
what is the function of vassopressin?
increases water resorption in the kidney
what can disrupt alpha helix stability?
a sequence of - or + charged amino acids
what 2 aminos occur in B turns?
glycine-cause its small & flexible
proline-cause cis peptide and tight turns
name the 5 class of fibrous proteins
keratins,elastins,fibrin,myosins,and collagens
name the 5 globular proteins
insulin, ribonuclease, immunoglobins, hemoglobin, and albumins
Name 3 major buffer systems in the vertebrates?
bicarbonate buffer system, phosphate systme, and proteins
name 10 aminos that are int the body?
valine,methionine,leucine, isoleucine,threonine,lysine, arginine,histidine, phenylalanine,tryptophan