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26 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
alpha particle

two protons and two neutrons bound together and emitted from
the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay 

beta particle

an electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of
radioactive decay 

daughter nuclide

a nuclide produced by the decay of a parent nuclide


decay series

a series of radioactive nuclides produced by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached


electron capture

the process in which an inner orbital electron is captured by
the nucleus of its own atom 

nuclear fission

a process in which a very heavy nucleus splits into morestable
nuclei of intermediate mass 

nuclear fusion

the combining of lightmass nuclei to form a heavier, more
stable nucleus 

hypothesis

a testable statement


scientific method

a logical approach to solving problems by observing and
collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data 

system

a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been
selected for study during an experiment or observation 

theory

a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena


model

an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are
related 

conversion factor

a ratio derived from the equality between two different units
that can be used to convert from one unit to the other 

derived unit

a unit that is a combination of SI base units


SI

(Le Système International d’Unités) the measurement system accepted
worldwide 

weight

a measure of the gravitational pull on matter


density

the ratio of mass to volume or mass divided by volume


quantity

something that has magnitude, size, or amount


volume

the amount of space occupied by an object


accuracy

the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the
quantity measured 

directly proportional

two quantities that give a constant value when one is divided
by the other 

indirectly proportional

two quantities that have a constant mathematical
product 

precision

the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in
the same way 

significant figure

any digit in a measurement that is known with certainty plus
one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated 

percent error

a value calculated by subtracting the experimental value from the
accepted value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100 

scientific notation

numbers written in the form M ×10n where the factor M is a
number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number 