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142 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pure Science
The search for a better understanding of our physical and natural world for its own sake.
Applied Science/Technology
Practical Application of Scientific Discoveries
Results of experiments, often collections of measurements.
The study of matter, its structure, properties, and composition. Five Types: Organic, Biochemistry, Analytical, Physical, Inorganic
Scientific Method
The way in which a scientist goes about solving a problem: State a Problem, Observe, Search for Laws, Hypothesize, Theorize, Modify Theories.
Carefully devised plans and procedures that enable researchers to make observations and gather observations.
Scientific Law
States a relationship between observed facts. Often in mathematical form.
An educated guess based on observation.
An explanation for a problem based on observed patterns in facts. CANNOT be proven.
Controlled Experiment
An experiment in which variables are changed one at a time and the effect of each variable is noted.
Term for things that can be measured like length, mass, and time.
SI Base
Thermodynamic Temperature:Kelvin(K)
Amount of Substance:Mole(mol)
SI Prefixes
Prefixes that can be used with SI base units to form new SI units in order to make greater of larger units.
SI Derived Units
Quantities measured in terms of other units.
How close a set of measurements for a quantity are to one another.
How close a measurement is to the true or correct value for the quantity.
Significant Figures
Digits in a measurement having values that are known with certainty plus one digit having an estimated value.
Observed Value
Value based on scientists laboratory measurements.
True Value
Most probable value based on generally accepted references.
Absolute Error
Differnce between the observed value and the true value.
Percent Error
Divide the absolute error by the true value and multiply by 100. Smaller value=More accurate measurement.
Conversion Factors
Measurements that are used to change, or convert, from one unit to another.
Factor-Label Method
32000 warps
Dimensional Analysis
The same as the Factor Label Method:Use of conversion factors and unit-labeled numbers.
Scientific Notation
A number is expressed as the product of two factors.
Anything that has mass and occupies space.
A measure of the quantity of matter of an object.
A kind of matter where all samples have the same properties or characteristics.
A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical change.
A substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined. Can be broken down into simpler substances through chemical change.
Consists of two or more substances, each of which retains its individual properties.
Matter that has uniform characteristics throughout.
Matter that has parts with different compositions.
The set of characteristics by which a substance is recognized.
Extensive Properties
Depend on how much of a particular sample is on hand: weight, volume, mass.
Intensive Properities
Do not depend on the size of the sample: melting point, density.
Physical Properties
Characteristics that can be observed without the production of new substances: color,odor,density,melting point.
Chemical Properties
Characteristics that describe how the substance interacts with other substances to produce new substances.
Physical Change
One or more physical properties of a substance are changed without any change in their chemical properties or composition and no new substances are produced.
Chemical Change
Change that results in the production of one or more substances that differ in chemical properties and composition from the original substance.
Free State/Elemental State
Elements exist alone, uncombined with other elements.
Combined State
Elements combined with other elements as part of a compound.
Law of Conservation of Mass
Matter cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical change.
Chemical Symbols
Abbreviation for the name of an element.
The ability to do work.
Done on an object in response to a force (push or pull) moves some distance while the force is being applied to it. Work=Force x Distance
Kinetic Energy
Energy of Motion
Unit of Energy (J)
Newton x Meter
(Kilogram x Meter)^2/second^2
Law of Conservation of Energy
No energy can be created or destroyed as a result of changes.
Reactants have more potential energy than the products. Gives off energy.
Products contain more energy than the reactants. Take in energy.
Activation Energy
The energy required to start a reaction.
Celsius Scale
Freezing Point of Water = 0.
Boiling Point of Water = 100.
Absolute Zero
0 degrees on the Kelvin Scale
Kelvin Scale
Celsius Scale Plus 273
Commonly used to measure heat. The amount of heat it takes to raise 1g of water 1 degree Celsius.
The amount of heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction.
A reaction chamber surrounded by a known mass of water. The reaction takes place in the chamber and raises the temperature of the water.
Specific Heat
The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 unit of mass of a substance by 1 unit of temperature.
Electrostatic Force
Force of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies.
Electric Current
Flow of charge between two conductors.
Electrical Conductors
Substances between which electric charge flows.
Chapter Six
Shoma Shoma Shoma
Fundamental building blocks that make up all matter.
Positive. Made of Protons and Neutrons. In the center of the atom.
Subatomic Particles
Electons, Neutrons, and Protons
Negative, Reside in Orbitals, 2000x smaller than protons and neutrons.
Positive, Reside in the Nucleus, 2000x bigger than electron, same size as neutron
Neutral, Reside in the Nucleus, 2000x bigger than electron, same size as proton
Discontinuous Theory of Matter
Matter is made up of particles so small and indestructible that they cannot be divided into anything smaller.
Continuous Theory of Matter
A solid body can be divided into smaller and smaller pieces without limit.
Law of Definite Proportions
Proportion by mass of all elements in a given compound is always the same.
Chapter One
Shoma Shoma Shoma
Chapter Two
Shoma Shoma Shoma
Chapter Three
Shoma Shoma Shoma
Chapter Four
Shoma Shoma Shoma
Chapter Five
Shoma Shoma Shoma
Law of Multiple Proportions
Pairs of elements can form more than one compound.
ex: H and O can form water and hydrogen peroxide.
Cathode-Ray Particles
What we now call electrons.
Quantum Theory
The idea that light come in discrete packets (quanta).
Charge to Mass Ratio
The ratio of charge on an electron to its mass.
Alpha Particles
One of the types of particles realeased when uranium and some other radioactive elements disintegrate.
Energy Levels
Electron orbits.
Ground State
All electrons are in the lowest energy levels available. Energetically stable.
Excited State
Electrons move from a lower energy level to a higher level.
Charge-Cloud Model
Nucleus is a dense positively charged core at the center of the atom, made of p+ and n. Electrons exist in orbitals outside the nucleus. e- form a cloud and show where they probably are.
Orbital Model
Nucleus is a dense positively charged core at the center of the atom, made of p+ and n. Electrons exist in orbitals outside the nucleus. e- form a cloud and show where they probably are.
Quantum-Mechanical Model
Nucleus is a dense positively charged core at the center of the atom, made of p+ and n. Electrons exist in orbitals outside the nucleus. e- form a cloud and show where they probably are.
Regions in space between sublevels.
Scientific Model
A mental picture that helps us understand something we cannot see or experience directly.
Plural of quantum (bundle of energy).
Bundle of energy.
Wave Length
The distance between two neighboring peaks or troughs.
The number of peaks that pass a given point each second.
Measure of Frequency
Cycles per Second
Abbreviated Hz
The distance a peak moves in a unit of time.
velocity=frequency x wavlength
v=f x λ
Electomagnetic Spectrum
Formed by all types of radiation.
Continuous Spectrum
The band of colors visible when light passes through a prism.
Brightline Spectrum
The set of lines visible when an element is burned and the light passes though a prism. Each element has its own set.
Planck's Constant
Energy is directly proportional to the frequency of the radiation. Represented by h.
E=hf E=energy (J) of a photon of radiation of frequency f.
The particles that make up the nucleus of an atom. Protons and neutrons.
Atomic Number
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons in their nuclei and therefore have different masses.
Mass Number
The sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic Mass
The average value of the masses of the isotopes in a natural sample of an element.
Atomic Mass Unit
One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope; a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights.
Chapter 13 and 14
Shoma Shoma Shoma
Neils Bohr
Proposed that a seperate set of Laws of Physics existed for atoms and atomic sized particles. Quantum model of atom.
Ernest Rutherford
Proposed a new model of the atom which included a small, very dense, positive nucleus surrounded by mostly empty space where electrons existed. Gold foil experiment.
James Chadwick
Described the work of Iren Joliet-Curie as neutron emission rather than a new radioactive particle.
J.J. Thompson
Cathode Ray Tubes. Discovered electrons. Stated they came from the supposedly indestructible atom. Plum-Pudding Model.
Robert Milikan
Oil Drop Experiment. Determine the charge of an electron.
John Dalton
Made discoveries that became the basis of modern atomic theory. Developed the first unified atomic theory.
Joseph Proust
Law of Definite Proportions: The proportion by mass of the elements in a given compound is always the same. Basis for Dalton.
Ancient Greek Model
"atomos"-small, indivisible; all atoms made of same kind of matter; sized and shape determines element.
Thompson (Plum Pudding Model)
Mass of positive matter embedded with negative electrons.
Bohr Model
Positively charged nucleus with electrons in set orbits in distinct energy levels.
Cloud Charge Model
Positively charged center made of protons and neutrons with electrons in orbitals around it. They form a cloud and show where they most likely are.
Ionization Energy
The energy required to remove the most loosely held electron from the outer energy level of an atom in the gas phase.
The measure of the ability of an atom that is chemically combined with another element to attract electrons to itself.
Ionic Radius
The effective distance from the nucleus of an atom to its valence shell.
Lose electrons: IR<AR
Gain electrons: IR>AR
Atomic Radius
Size of an atom
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Cannot know the location and velocity of subatomic particle at the same time. No longer have the Bohr Model.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
In order for two electrons to occupy the same orbital they must have opposite spin.
Aufbau Principle
Electrons will first fill in areas that require low energy and then higher energy.
Hund's Rule
Electrons will spread out as much as possible within the orbitals amongst the suborbitals before filling in the suborbitals completely.
horizontal row ordered by increasing atomic number.
vertical column; similar chemical properties.
Chapter 7
Shoma Shoma Shoma
Alkali Metals
Alkaline Earth Metals
Nitrogen Family
Noble Gases
Group 18. Unreactant. Full outer shell.
Qualitative Analysis
Quantitative Analysis