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21 Cards in this Set

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How many periodic Trends are there?
Five
What are the Periodic Trends?
1. Atomic Radii
2. Ionic Radii
3. Ionization Energy
4. Electron Affinity
5. Electronegativity
What is Atomic Radii?
The distance from the center of an etom's nucleus to its outermost electron
What is Ionic Radii?
The distance from the center of an ion's nucleus to it's outermost electron.
What is Ionization Energy?
The energy needed to remove one of the atom's electrons. It is also a measure of how strongly an atom holds onto its electrons. Atoms with high ionization energies hold the outermost electron very tightly.
What is Electron Affinity?
The energy change that occurs when an atom gains an extra electron. If an atom has a negative electron affinity, it indicates that the atom required no energy to gain the electron.
What is Electronegativity?
The ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond.
What is the Periodic trend for atomic radii?
Atomic radius increases as you move down the periodic table and decreases as you move across the periodic table.
What is the periodic trend for ionic radii?
Ionic radius increases as you move down the periodic table and decreases as you move across the periodic table.
When an atom loses an electron what happens to the ion?
SHRINKS
When an atom gains an electron what happens to the ion?
EXPANDS
What is the trend for Ionization Energy?
Ionization energy decreases as you move down the periodic table and increases as you move across.
What is the trend for Electron Affinity?
There is not trend for Electron Affinity as you move down the table, but it increases negatively as you move across the periodic table.
Octet Rule
Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to aquire a full set of valence electrons.
What is the periodic trend for electronegativity?
Electronegativity increases as you move across and towards FLUORINE.
What is the most electronegative element? What is the least?
FLUORINE is the most and CESIUM is the least.
Why do atoms get smaller as you move across a period?
The increasing positive charge on the nucleus exerts a stronger pull on the electrons, shrinking the orbitals and making the atom smaller.
Why does the trend for atomic radii occur ?
It increases as you go down because the number of energy levels increases.

It decreases as you move across becasue the increased number of protons and the positive charge pulls the negativley charged valence electrons closer to the center of the atom.
Why does the trend for ionic Radii occur?
It increases as you move down the table becsause there is an increased number of orbitals.

It increases as you move across the table because the increased number of protons pulls hte valence electrons in closer to the nucleus.
Why does the trend for Ionization energy occur?
Because the electrons in smaller atoms are held more strongly by the nucleus, so more energy is required to remove an electron. The larger the atom, the less energy is needed to remove an electron.
Why does the trend for Electron Affinity occur?
Atoms that gain electrons to fill the outer energy level will have higher electron affinity, and htose that lose electrons to fill the outer shell have a lower electron affinity.