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33 Cards in this Set

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solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
has the greater number of moles and is generally considered the "vehicle" for the solute. Seen as less important (less note-worthy) than the solute.
solute
has fewer moles than the solvent and is normally the substance of interest. solutions are generally labeled with the solute.
aqueous solution
water is the solvent
concentration
ratio of solute to solvent (or to the entire solution).
uses molality and molarity for units
molarity
moles of solute/liters of solution = mmol solute/mL solution.
used in problems involving osmotic pressure and stochiometry.
molality
moles of solute/kg of solvent.
used in problems involving freezing point depression and boiling point elevation.
electrolyte
any compound that can be dissolved into ions when placed in a solution.
strong electrolyte
completely dissolves into ions
weak electrolyte
partially dissolves into ions
non-electrolytes
do not dissolve into ions
(ex. ethanol)
osmosis
when solvent passes through a semipermeable membrane to balance the solute on each side of the membrane
semipermeable membrane
allows only solvent passage through the membrane
density of water
1.00g/mL
dilute solution
contains less solute than a concentrated solution (well water)
concentrated solution
contains more solute than a dilute solution (sea-water)
dilution
when more solvent is added to a solution
boiling point
determined by amount of dissolved solute particles
the more solute dissolved, the higher the boiling point
Freezing Point Depression
when solute is added, the freezing point lowers
redox reactions
oxidation/reduction reactions
oxidation
when electrons are lost
reduction
when electrons are gained
oxidation number (ON)
Charge that an atom possesses
halogens- ON= -1
alkali metals- ON= +1
alkaline earth metals- ON= +2
H- ON= +1 (sometimes -1)
O- ON= -2 (sometimes -1 or -1/2)
oxidizing agents
electron acceptors, they get reduced in a redox reaction
reducing agents
electron donors, they get oxidized
acid-base
neutralization (also an example of chemical equilibrium)
acid
donate H+ to the solution
(ex. HCl, HNO(3)
base
accepts H+
(ex. NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)(2))
molecular equation
chemical equation in which all reactants and products are written as molecules, when in reality, they are ions in water.
Net Ionic Equation
Chemical equation in which all soluble species are written in their aqueous ionic form
Saturated Solution
a solution with the maximum amount of solute for a given volume of solvent
unsaturated solution
a solution with less than the amount of solute per volume of solvent.
supersaturated solution
temporary condition in which the solution contains more than the saturated amount.