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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In forming bonds, main group elements gain, lose, or share electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration with eight valence electrons.
Octet Rule
A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself.
An atom or group of bonded atoms that has a negative charge.
An atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive charge.
A representation of a molecule, ion, or formula unit by atomic symbols with the valence electrons shown as dots.
Lewis dot symbol
The attraction between positive and negative ions.
Ionic bond
Compounds composed of positive and negative ions.
Ionic compounds
In ionic compounds, the simplest ratio of oppositely charged ions that gives an electrically neutral unit
Formula Unit
Chemical compound composed of two elements
Binary compound
A positive or negative ion composed of two or more atoms.
Polyatomic ion
A bond in which two atoms share electrons
Covalent bond
Pairs of electrons shared between two atoms, frequently represented by lines (instead of dots) for convenience in Lewis structures
Bonding pairs
Pairs of valence electrons that are not shared between to atoms in the Lewis structure but instead are associated with a single atom in the structure; should always be shown as dots in lewis structures.
Lone Pairs
Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen
Hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon single bonds
Different compounds with the same formula but different structures
Hydrocarbons that are alkanes
Saturated hydrocarbons
A bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
Double bond
A bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
Triple bond
Two or more possible Lewis dot representations of a molecule or ion in which the only difference is the position of the valence electrons.
Resonance Structures
Amount of energy required to break one mole of bonds between a specified pair of atoms
Bond Energy
Hydrocarbons with one or more carbon-carbon double bonds
Hydrocarbons that contain fewer than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms; alkenes and alynes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
Describes a bond or molecule which is not polar because it has no polar bonds or because its polar bonds are oriented symmetrically so that they cancel each other
Describes a bond or molecule in which charge is unevenly distributed, creating positive and negative regions
A compound that conducts electricity when melted or dissolved in water
A compound that does not conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water
Attractive forces that act between molecules; weaker than covalent bonds
Intermolecular forces
Attraction between a hydrogen atom bonded to a highly electronegative atom (O, N, F) and the lone pair on an electronegative atom in another or the same molecule.
Hydrogen bonding
The change of molecules from the gaseous state to the liquid state
A state of matter that is capable of flowing; a gas or a liquid
Force per unit area
Ability to mis in all proportions
Easily vaporized
The pressure above a liquid caused by molecules that have escaped from the liquid surface
Vapor pressure
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure and boiling occurs.
Boiling Point
If the atmospheric pressure is 1 atm
Normal boiling point
In a solution, the substance present in the greater amount
In a solution, the substance dissolved in the solvent
The maximum quantity of a solute that will dissolve in a given amount of a solvent at a specified temperature
Saturated Solution
Solution in which less than the maximum amount of solute is dissolved at a given temperature
Unsaturated Solution
Describes a substance that will not dissolve in a given solvent
The temperature at which a solid substance turns into a liquid
Melting point
Formation of a crystalline solid from a melt or a solution
Crystallization (solidification)
The process whereby molecules escape from the surface of a solid into the gas phase