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89 Cards in this Set

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Scientific Method
a systematic approach to research
Steps of the Scientific Method
1) Observations 2)hypothesis (if...then)and it is a yes/no question 3) desighn an experiment (must test the hypothesis) 4) conclusion will/will not support hypothesis 5) varify your results by looking for errors and retesting
variables
things that can be altered (indepenent and dependent variables)
Dependent Variable
will change in responce to Independent variable. This is the variable that is measured (see example in notes)
Independent variable/manipulated variable
the variable that is altered and being tested (see example in notes)
variables to be controled
all other conditions must remain the same
control setup
used for comparison (standard). It does not have the independent variable in it. (see example in notes)
experimental setup(s)
1) anything with the indpendent variable 2) compared to control
Theory
a generally accepted idea that is believed to be true
law
concise statement of explanation for a set of experiments
colaborate and comunication
1)allows to brain storm for advancement 2) overlapping 3) shareknowledge (all over the world)
Matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
atom
smallest/basic unit of matter
extensive property
depends upon how much matter is being considered (ie; mass, volume, length)
Intensive properties
material does not depend upon how much matter is being considered (ex. density, melting and boiling points, color)
states of matter
solid , liquid, gas, plasma
solid(s)
1) definate shape 2) definate volume 3) atoms bonded together (low energy and fixed position- incompressable)
Amorphous solid
no clear structure ex. glass
liquid
(add energy to a solid) 1) no definate shape 2) atoms move. they are still attracted but not bonded (intermolecular forces) 3) fixed volume (incompressable)
intermolecular forces
atoms are sill atracted but not bonded
gas
(more energy) 1) indefinate shape 2) compressable (no set volume) 3) atoms totally independent of eachother (unattracted)
plasma
(most energy) positive ions and electrons (no atoms) cool plasma=50,000-10,000,000 Hot Plasma 10,000,000-1,000,000,000 (all kevin scale)
Melting
solid to liquid
freezing
liquid to solid
evaporation
liquid to gas
gas to liquid
condensation
sublamation
solid to gas
deposition
gas to solid
physical change
a change does not change composition of matter
SEE MATTER BREAK DOWN IN NOTES
SEE MATTER BREAK DOWN IN NOTES
hypothesis
tentative explanation for a set of observations
Chemistry
study of matter and the changes it undergoes
element
substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. 113 elements identified. 82 occur naturally on earth. 31 elements have been created by scientists
substance
form of matter that has a definate composition and distinct properties
homogenous mixture
composition of the mixture is the same throughout
heterogeneous mixture
composition is not uniform throughout
physical means
can be used to separate a mixture into its pure components
Mixture
combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities
Aluminum
Al
Barium
Ba
Bromine
Br
Calcium
Ca
Carbon
C
Chlorine
Cl
Chromium
Cr
Chromium
Cr
Cobalt
Co
Copper
Cu
Fluorine
F
Gold
Au
Hydrogen
H
Iodine
I
Iron
Fe
Lead
Pb
Magnesium
Mg
Manganese
Mn
Mercury
Hg
Nickel
Ni
Nitrogen
N
Oxygen
O
Phosphorus
P
Potassium
K
Silver
Ag
Sodium
Na
Sulfur
S
Tin
Sn
Zinc
Zn
Compound
substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions. They can only be separated into their pure components (elements) by chemical means
Distinguishing between elements and compounds
1) compounds can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means, but elements cannot. 2) Elements have the same atoms while compounds are made up of two or more different elements
Symbols and Formulas
chemists use chemical symbols to represent elements and chemical formulas to represent compounds
Chemical change
alters the composition or identity of a substance(s) involved. During a chemical change, the composition of matter always changes.
Clues of a chemical change
transfer of energy, color change, production of a gas, precipitation
Dansity
SI derived unit for density is kg/m3
Kelvin
1)boiling=373k 2)freezing point=27k
Celsius
0=freezing 100=boiling
Fahrenheit
32=melting 212=boiling
Accuracy
how close a measurement is to the ture value
Precision
how close a set of measurements are to eachother
Dimensional Analysis Method of solving problems
1) determine which unit conversion factor(s) are needed 2)carry units through calculation 3)if all units cancel except for the desired unit(s), then the problem was solved correctly
Solution
a homogeneous mixture; consists of solutes dissolved in a solvent
physical property
a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's composition
volume
a measure of the space occupied by a somple of matter
mass
a measure of the amount of matter that an object contains; the SI base unit of mass is the kilogram
experiment
a repeatable procedure that is used to test a hypothesis
Macroscopic
describes the world of objects that are large enough to see with the unaided eye
microscopic
describes the world of objects that can be seen only under magnification
technology
the means by which a society provies its members with those things needed and desired
organic
containing carbon
inorganic
does not contain carbon