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54 Cards in this Set

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Chemistry
the study of materials, their composition and structure, and the changes they undergo.
scientific method
logical approach to the solution of problems that lend themselves to investigation
-state problem and make observations
-formulate hypothesis using observations
-perform many experiments and collect data
-form conclusion using data from experiments
-form theory or law
quantitative
includes numbers
--the bug had 5 dots
qualitative
includes descriptions
--the bug was red
theory
an explanation that has been supported by many experiments but is still subject to new experimental data and can change
natural law
state general behavior that occurs naturally and does not change
Mass
Kilogram (kg)
Length
Meter (m)
Time
Second (s)
Amount of substance
Mole (mol)
Temperature
Kelvin (K)
Mega
M 10^6
Kilo
k 10^3
Deci
d 10^-1
Centi
c 10^-2
Milli
m 10^-3
Micro
µ 10^-6
Celcius to Kelvin
K= ºC=273
Celcius to Fahrenheit
ºF= (1.8 ºC)+32
Density
d=m/v
(g/mL)
Accuracy
how close a measured value is to an accepted or ture value
Precision
how close a series of measurments are to one another
Percent Error
accepted - experimental value
% error= --------------------------
accepted
gas
indefinite shape and indefinite volume
most amount of energy
fills its container
liquid
indefinite shape and definite volume
particles are free to move
solid
definite shape and definite volume
particles are in fixed vibrating position
physical properties
describe appearance of matter
--state, color, volume, odor, taste, hardness, density, solubility, and melting/boiling point
extensive properties
depend on amount of substance present
--mass, length and volume
intensive properties
independant of amound of substance present
--density, color, temperature, hardness, pressure, molecular weight, and boiling/melting point.
physical changes
the form changes but not the identity
--bend, crumple, split, crush, boil, freeze, condense, vaporize, or melt
solid --> liquid
melting
liquid --> solid
freezing
liquid --> gas
evaporation
gas --> liquid
condensing
gas --> solid
reverse sublimation
solid --> gas
sublimation
chemical change
when one or more substances change into new substances
--oxidize, corrode, tarnish, ferment, burn, or rot
chemical property
ability of a substance to combine with or change ino one or more other substances
element
pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substacces by chemical means
compound
when two or more elements comine in fixed composition by weight. can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
law of definite proportions
the elements comprising comounds comine in definite proportions by mass
percent by mass
mass of element
% by mass= ---------------- x 100
mass of compound
mixture
somthing that has variable compositon and is made of a number of pure substances and each pure substance retains its individual properties
pure substance
always have the same composition
--compounds or elements
homogeneous mixture
same throughout.
--dissolved salt in water
heterogeneous mixture
has regions that contain different properties from those of other regions
filtration
used to seperate and insoluble solid from a liquid. pour the mixture onto a mesh, such as a filter paper, which allows the liquid to pass through and leaves the solid behind.
distillation
used to seperate either a liquid from a soluble solid like salt water or a two liquid mixture with different boiling points.
1st liquid evaporates then passes through a condenser which turnes it back into a liquid and seperates the two liquids
energy
ability to do work or produce heat
--kinetic & potential
law of conservation of energy
any chemical reaction or physical process, energy can be converted from one form to another, but it is neither created nor detroyed
calorie
amount of energy/heat required to raise the temp. of one gram of water by one degree Celcius
-- 1 cal = 4.184 J
SHC
the amount of energy required to change the temp. of one gram of that substance by one degree celcius. ( J/gºC)
-- Q= SHC x m x ∆T in ºC
exothermic process
heat is transferred from the system to the surroundings
endothermic process
heat is transferred to the system from the surroundings