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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
solute vs. solvent
solute: substance being dissolved
solvent: substance doing the dissolving

- most abundant substance is the solvent
4 factors that affected the rate of a chemical reaction
1. nature of reactants (ionic = faster)
2. concentration of reactants (more collisions)
3. temperature (more energy = increased speed)
4. catalysts = speeds up chemical reactions without being active or used up
soluable vs. insoluable
miscible vs. immiscible
soluable: does dissolve
insoluable: does not dissolve

liquids only-
miscible: does dissolve
immiscible: doesn't dissolve
maximum amount of solute with a given amount of solvent at a given temperature and pressure

temperature increases - particles move faster, bonds weaken
gases - decrease solubility by heating gas until it leaves the solution
Reaction mechanism
series of steps a reaction gas goes through

slowest step - rate determining step
Collision theory
must collide head on at the right angle with enough force

usually involves two particles
properties of acids and bases
acids: hydrogen, sour, stings/burns, red paper, 0-6 pH, produces co2 when reacting with carbonate and h2 when reacting with metals, and when reacting with phenolphaline it is clear

bases: bitter, slippery, hydroxide (OH), does not react with metals or carbonates, blue paper, 8-14 pH, and turns pink/magenta when reacts with pheolphaline
saturated solution
solubility is reached at a given temperature and pressure
-will not be clear
-the amount left over of the solute will stay at the bottom because it can't be dissolved anymore
M = moles of solute/L of solution
.001 im - 1.0 um
doesn't settle
no filter
lights scatters (tyndall effect)

examples: toothpaste, milk, paint, glue
percent composition
1. determine molar mass of compound
2. divide each element's mass by total mass of compound
3. multiply by 100
predict products
-2Na+F2 -> 2NaF
-double displacement reaction; solids formed from two reacting liquid ionic solutions; eventually will settle
-only if substance formed is higher on the chart
pH scale
0,1,2 = strong acid
3,4,5,6 = weak acid
7 = neutral (water)
8,9,10,11 = weak base
12,13,14 = strong base

logarithmic scale - jump from one number to the next with a change by the power of 10
strong bases vs. weak bases
strong base: higher pH, shifts to the right and only makes molecules to ions (Free moving ions) and conductivity is better

weak base: shifts both ways because it goes from ions to molecules randomly
4 types of solids
metallic: metals, atoms, metallic bonding, loses 1-4 valence electrons, goes from soft to hard, low to high b.p. and m.p., and conducts

ionic: salts, positive and negative ions, electrostatic attraction, hard/brittle, high m.p. and b.p., dissolves, and conducts

molecular: organic compound, atoms/molecules, hydrogen boding, dipole-dipole, dispersion, soft, low m.p. and b.p., does not conduct, and is insoluable

covalent network: diamonds, graphite, silicon, quartz, atoms, covalent bonds, strong, high m.p. and b.p., poor conductivity, and insoluable
8 properties of water
-pH = 7
-bent shape
-polar (positive and negative ends of the molecule)
-most abundant substance on Earth
-exists as a liquid at room temperature
-very high specific heat (has to absorb and release lots of energy to change temperature)
-ice molecules form circular shapes
-bends light (refraction)
-universal solvent
phase changes
solid - liquid: melting
solid - gas: sublimation
gas - liquid: condensation/vaporization
gas - solid: depositio
mercury level in thermometer goes down when in ice because...
-mercury atoms give energy to colder water
-atoms move slowly
-collide with force and contract/come together
-thermometer level goes down
kinetic theory of matter
1. all matter is made of particles and these particles have mass
2. particles experience constant random motion
3. collisions keep going and going (perfectly eleastic)
4. particles have higher energies at higher temperatures and lower energy at lower temperatures; more massive particles will move slower then less massive particles
empirical formula
formula for a compoudn with the simplest ratio of elements
-chemical quantity
-6.02 X 10 ^23
-22.4 L
-molar mass in grams
exothermic vs. endothermic
exothermic: hot, releases heat energy
endothermic: cold, absorbs heat energy
-products of reaction have more energy then reactants
types of reactions
double displacement: ab+cd -> ad+bc
combustion: ab+cd->co2+h20
synthesis: a+b->ab
Le Chatelier's Principle
-when stressing a system by changing temperature, pressure or concentration, the system will undo what has been done to it
chemical equilibrium
rate of forward reaction equals the reate of the reverse reaction; the concentration of all substances are cosntant
how do you know a reaction has occured?
energy change, color change, gas emitted
representative particle
-smallest portion of a substance that still maintains its original properties
-ionic compound = formula unit
-molecular compound = molecule
-atom = element
when gases produce pressure...
they bump into each other and into the walls of their container
Boyle's Law
inverse relationship

pressure and volume of a gase are proprtionate to each over

P1V1 = P2V2
Charle's Law
direct relationship (when pressure is constant)

volume increass when temperature increases
combined gas law
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Ideal gas law
PV = nRT

R = PV/nT

R = 8.31
identifying molar mass
MM = dRT/P
5 properties of a solution
1. one substance dissolved in another substance
2. uniform throughout
3. particles can't be seen
4. can't be flitered
5. particles don't settle