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49 Cards in this Set

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What are liquids and solids often referred to as?
The condensed phases
How are atoms or molecules held in liquid?
They are held close together with little space between them
What does this result in?
It makes liquids have definite volumes that cannot easily be expanded or compressed
Can liquid diffuse and evaporate?
Yes
What do liquids form when they mix, both with each other and with other phases?
They form solutions
What is the degree to which two liquids can mix?
It is called their miscibility
What are oil and water?
They are almost completely immiscible
What can two immiscible liquids form?
A fairly homogenous mixture called an emulsion
What may a solid be?
It may be crystalline or amorphous
What is the structure of a crystalline solid?
It possess an ordered structure
How do is atoms exist?
They exist in a specific three-dimensional geometric arrangement with repeating patterns of atoms, ions, or molecules
What is the structure of an amorphous solid?
It has no ordered three-dimensional arrangement, although the molecules are also fixed in place
What are most solids?
Most are crystalline in structure
What are ionic solids?
They are aggregates of positively and negatively charged ions
Are there any discrete molecules?
No
What are the physical properties of ionic solids?
They include high melting points, high boiling points, and poor electrical conductivity in the solid phase
What are these properties due to?
They are due to the compounds’ strong electrostatic interactions, which also cause the ions to be relatively immobile
What are metallic solids?
They consist of metal atoms packed together as closely as possible
What are characteristics of metallic solids?
They have high melting and boiling points as a result of their strong covalent attractions
What are pure metallic structures?
They are usually described as layers of spheres of roughly similar radii
What are repeating units of crystals?
They are represented by unit cells
What are the types of unit cells?
Simple cubic, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic
What are atoms represented by?
They are represented by points
In an isolated system, are phase changes reversible?
Yes
Does an equilibrium exist between phases?
Yes
What is the temperature of a liquid related to?
It is related to the average kinetic energy of the liquid molecules
What is evaporation or vaporization
It is when some molecules near the surface of a liquid have enough energy to leave the liquid phase and escape into the gaseous phase
What happens each time the liquid loses a high-energy particle?
The temperature of the remaining liquid decreases
What does this imply about evaporation?
It is a cooling process
What is condensation?
It is when some gas molecules go back into the liquid phase
What is vapor pressure?
It is the pressure that the gas exerts over the liquid
How does vapor pressure relate to temperature?
It increases with temperatures
Why?
Because more molecules have sufficient kinetic energy to escape into the gas phase
What is the term for the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the external pressure?
The boiling point
What is the transition from solid to liquid?
It is called fusion or melting
What is the process from liquid to solid?
It is called solidification, crystallization, or freezing
What is it called when a solid goes directly into the gas phase?
It is called sublimation
What is gaseous to the solid phase?
It is called deposition
What does a phase diagram depict?
It shows the phases and phase equilibria of a substance at defined temperatures and pressures
Where is the gas typically found?
It is typically found at high temperature and low pressure
Where is the solid phase found?
Low temperature and high pressure
Where is the liquid phase found?
It is found at high temperature and high pressure
What is the triple point?
It is the point on a phase diagram where the three lines meet
What is the critical point?
It is the temperature and pressure above which no distinction between liquid and gas is possible
What does Raoult’s Law do?
It enables one to determine the relationship between the vapor pressure of A and the concentration of liquid A in the solution
What are colligative properties?
They are physical properties derived solely from the number of particles present, not the nature of those particles
What is the formula for calculating freezing-point depression?
Tf = Kfm. Tf is the freezing-point depression, Kf is a proportionality constant, and m is the molality of the solution
When does a liquid boil?
It boils when its vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure
What if the vapor pressure of a solution is lower than that of the pure solvent?
More energy and a higher temperature will be required before its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure