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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Element
An element is a substance that cannot be brokendown into a simpler chemical substance.
Chemical Symbol
A chemical symbol is one or two letters that identify an element, for example C for carbon and Na for sodium.
C
Carbon - 18.5% of the human body
H
Hydrogen - 9.5% of the human body
O
Oxygen - 65% of the human body
N
Nitrogen
P
Phosporus
Cl
Chlorine
Na
Sodium
K
Potassium
S
Sulfur
Ca
Calcium
Mg
Magnesium
Fe



New Term
Iron - trace element in the human body
Zn



New Term
Zinc - trace element in the human body
Cu



New Term
Copper - trace element in the human body
I



New Term
Ioding - trace element in the human body
Mn



New Term
Manganese - trace element in the human body
B
Boron - trace element in the human body
Cr



New Term
Chromium - trace element in the human body
Mo



New Term
Molybdenum - trace element in the human body
Co



New Term
Cobalt - trace element in the human body
Se



New Term
Selenium - trace element in the human body
F



New Term
Florine - trace element in the human body
Trace Elements



New Term Section 6.1
Elements that are present in living things in very small amounts and are necessary for healthy cells
Atom



Section 6.1
An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element.
Name the particles that make up an atom.
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Name the particles in the nucleus of an atom.
Protons and Neutrons
Name the charge on a proton.
Positive
Name the charge on a neutron.
Neutral
Name the charge on an electron.
Negative
Describe the location of electrons in an atom.


Section 6.1
Electrons travel around the nucleus and move so quickly they look like a cloud.
Electron Energy Levels



Section 6.1
Electrons travel around the nucleus in regions call energy levels.
What is the number of electrons the first energy level can hold?


Section 6.1
The first energy level can hold 2 electrons.
What is the number of electrons the second energy level can hold?
The second energy level can hold 8 electrons.
What is the number of electrons the third energy level can hold?


Section 6.1
The third energy level can hold 18 electrons.
What is the charge on an atom?



Section 6.1
Atoms are neutral. They have the same number of postive protons and negative electrons.
Isotopes



Section 6.1
An isotope is an element that has a different number of neutrons that usual. For example carbon usually has 6 neutrons but sometimes has 7 or 8 neutrons in the nucleus.
Chemical Compounds
A substance that contains 2 or more atoms of DIFFERENT elements that are chemically bonded together, for example NaCl (salt).
Covalent Bond



Section 6.1
A covalent bond is when 2 or more atoms are held together by the sharing of electrons.
Molecule
A molecule is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds and having no overall cahrge.
Ion



Section 6.1
An atom that has gained or lost and electron and has a positive or negative charge.
The charge on an atom that has lost an electron in other words an atom that has lost a negative charge.
This would make a positively charged ion.
The charge on an atom that has gained an electron in other words an atom that has gained a negative charge.
This would make a negatively charged ion.
Ionic Bond
An ionic bond happens when two atoms of opposite charges attract.
Metabolism



New Term
Metabolism is all of the chemi al reactions that occur in an organism.
Chemical Reactions
In chemical reactions the bonds between atoms in molecules are broken and the atoms combine and recombine making different molecules.
Chemical Equations
Chemical equations use chemical symbols to show how molecules ane broken down and recombined into new substances.
(See page 152 fro an example)
Mixture
A mixture is a combination of substances where each substance retains their own properties, for example trail mix.
Solution
A solution is a special kind of mixture where one substance (called the solute) is evenly distributed in another substance (called the solvent) for example Kool-Aid.
pH



Section 6.1
A scale that is used to measure the strength of acids and bases. The pH scale goes from 0 to 14.
pH of an Acid
Acids have a pH between 0 and 6.
Neutral pH

Section 6.1
A pH of 7 is considered to be neutral on the pH scale
pH of a Base



Section 6.1
Bases have a ph between 8 and 14.
What is the pH of lemon juice?
Lemon juice has a pH of 2.
Lemon juice is a strong acid.
What is the pH of tomatoes?
Tomatoes have a pH of 4.
Tomatoes are a modetate acid.
What is the pH of milk?



Section 6.1
Milk has a pH of 6.
Milk is a weak or mildly acidic.
What is the pH of water?



Section 6.1
It has a pH of 7.
Water is neutral on the pH scale.
What is the pH of an egg?



Section 6.1
An egg has a pH of 8.
It is a mild base.
What is the pH of an antacid like tums?


Section 6.1
Antacids have a pH of 10.
Antacids are moderate bases.
What is the pH of ammonia?



Section 6.1
Ammonia has a pH of 11.
Ammonia is considered a strong base.
What is the pH of drain cleaner like Drano?


Section 6.1
Drain cleaner has a pH of 13.
Drain cleaner is a very strong base.
What is an Acid?



Section 6.1
An acid is a substance that forms hydrogen ions in water.
What is a Base?



Section 6.1
A Base is a substance that forms hydroxide ions in water.
Why is water a polar molecule?



Section 6.2
The electrons in water are not shared equally so one end of the molecule is slightly positive and the other side is slightly negative.
What happens when water freezes?



Section 6.2
Water expends when it freezes.
What is diffusion?



Section 6.2
The movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
What is equilibrium?



Section 6.2
Molecules are moving but the consentration of a substance is no longer changing, it has equalized.