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57 Cards in this Set

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Equilibrium law
states that for equilibrium aA + bB ↔ Cc + dD Kc = [C]^c [D]^d / [A]^a [B]^b
Dynamic equilibrium
Exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction
Homogenous equlibrium
where all species in an equilibrium are in the same physical state
Heterogenous equilibrium
Where species in an equilibrium are in different states
Le chateliers principle
when a system in dynamic equilibrium is subjected to a change, the position of equilibrium will shift to minimise the change
Brønsted-Lowry acid
a proton, H+, donor
Brønsted-Lowry base
a proton, H+, acceptor
Alkali
A base that dissolves in water forming OH-
Neutralisation
A chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react together to produce a salt and water
Conjugate acid-base pair
A pair of two species that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton
Conjugate base
the species left after an acid has donated a proton
Conjugate acid
The species produced when a base has a accepted a proton
pH
-log[H+]
[H+]
10^-pH
Strong acid
an acid that completely dissociates in solution
Weak acid
an acid that partially dissociates in solution
Acid dissociation constant, Ka
[H+][A-] / [HA]
pKa
-log Ka
Ionic product of water, Kw
[H+][OH-] at 25degrees this is 1*10^-14
Buffer solution
A mixture that minimises pH changes on addition of small amounts of acid or base
Equivalence point
the point in a titration at which the volume of one solution has reacted exactly with the volume of the second solution
End point
the point in a titration at which there are equal concentrations of the weak acid and conjugate base forms of the indicator
Standard enthalpy change of neutralisation
the energy change that accompanies the neutralisation of an aqueous acid by an aqueous base to form one mole of H2O under standard conditions
Rate of reaction
the change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit time
Initital rate of reaction
the change in concentration of a reactant , or product, per unit time at the start of the reaction when t=0
The rate equation
For reaction A + B → C is given by: rate = k [A]^x [B]^y
The order of reaction
the power to which the concentration of the reactant is raised in the rate equation
The rate constant, k
the constant that links the rate of reaction with the concentrations of the reactants raised to the powers of their orders in the rate equation
Half-life
the time taken for the concentration of the reactant to reduce by half
Reaction mechanism
a series of steps that, together, make up the overall reaction
The rate-determining step
the slowest step in the reaction mechanism of a multi-step reaction
Intermediate
a species formed in one step of a multi-step reaction that is used up in a subsequent step, and is not seen as either a reactant or a product of the overall equation
Transition element
a d-block elemet that forms a ion with an incomplete d sub-shell
Complex ion
a transition metal ion bonded to one or more ligans by coordinate bonds (Dative covalent bonds)
Ligand
A molecule or ion that can donate a pair of electrons with the transition metal ion to form a coordinate bond
Coordination number
the total number of cooridnate bonds formed between a central metal ion and its ligands
Coordinate bond
a bond in which one of the bonded atoms provides both electrons for the shared pair
Stereoisomers
species with the same structural formula but with a different arrangemet of the atoms in space
Optical isomers
non-superimposable mirror images
Ligand substitution
A reaction in which one ligand in a complex ion is replaced by another ligand
Kstab
The equilibrium constant for an equilibrium existing between a transition metal ion surrounded by water ligands and the complex formed when the same ion has undergone ligand substitution
Oxidation
loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation number
Reduction
gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation number
Standard electrode potential
is the electromotive force of a half cell compared with a standard hydrogen half cell under standard conditions (298K, 100kPa, 1moldm^-3)
Lattice enthalpy
the enthalpy change accompanying the formation of one mole of an ionic compound from its gaseous ions under standard conditions
Hess's law
states that if a reaction can take place by more than one route and the initial and final conditions are the same, the total enthalpy change is the same for each route
Standard enthalpy change of formation
the enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions
enthalpy change of atomisation
the enthalpy change when one mole of gaseous atoms forms from the element in its standard state
First ionisation energy
the enthalpy change when one electron is removed from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions
Second ionisation energy
the enthalpy change when one electron is removed from each ion in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions
First electron affinity
the enthalpy change when one electron is added to each atom in mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1- ions
Second electron affinity
the enthalpy change when one electron is added to each ion in mole of gaseous 1- ions to form one mole of gaseous 2- ions
Standard enthalpy change of solution
the enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is completely dissolved in water under standard conditions
Standard enthalpy change of hydration
the enthalpy change when one mole of isolated gaseous ions are dissolved in water forming one mole of aqueous ions under standard conditions
Entropy, S
the quantitative measure of the degree of disorder in a system
Standard entropy change of reaction
the entropy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities expressed in a chemical equation under standard conditions in standard states
Free energy change
the balance between enthalpy, entropy and temperature for a process: ΔG = ΔH - TΔS for feasibility ΔG > 0