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41 Cards in this Set

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"reaction kinetics" The study of speeds of reactions and the nanoscale pathways or rearrangements by which atoms and molecules are transformed to products
Chemical Kinetics
Four factors that affect the speed of reaction:
1. Properties of the reactants and products
2. the concentrations of the reactants and products
3. the temperature of the reaction
4. the presence of the catalyst
when all reactants and products are in the same phase.
homogeneous reaction
all reactants have multiple phases
heterogeneous reaction
the change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit time
Rate of a chemical reaction
rate=change in concentration of x/elapsed time
rate of chemical reaction
slope of a line tangent to the curve at t
instantaneous rate
rate constant
INFO: Rate laws must be experimentally determined. They cannot be predicted from a reactions stoichiometry
The order for each reactant is found by:
1. changing the inital[] of that reactant
2. holding all other initial []s and conditions constant
3. measuring the inital rates of reaction
changes in rate are used to determine ...
the orders for the reactants
The time requried for one half of the reactant originally present to react.
Half life
the half life concept is especially useful for __ order reactions
__is independent of the starting concentration for first reactions
__ is constant for a given reaction
Measuring the half life of a 1st order reaction will allow you to calculate ___
a single particle (atom,ion,molecule) rearranges into 1 or 2 different particles
unimolecular reactions
two particles collide and rearrange into products
bimolecular reactions
unimolecular and bimolecular reactions, what actually
occurs at the nanoscale
elementary reactions
Reactions seen at a macroscale
elementary and complex
reaction that directly occur by one of these two processes
reaction that occrs as a series of elementary steps
this state lies at the top of the activation barrier and lasts a very short time
transition state or activated complex
small factor of collisions
steric factor
forward reaction-->
Arrhenius Equation
Frequency Factor in Arr. Equation
Activation Energy in Arr. Equation
fraction of the molecules with enough E to cross the Barrier
Gas Law constant
R=8.314 J
reaction are always 1st order
reaction are always 2nd order
do not occur as writtin; they are carried out in a series of elementary steps
complex reactions
lists the series of elemetary steps that occur; shows which molecules collide, and how reactants change into products
Reaction Mechanism
slowest step in the sequence
the rate limiting step
the rate of the overall reaction equals..
the rate of the slowest step
Is seen in both steps
when putting in an amount you should get the same amount back in the experiment
-increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed as a reactant would be.
-provides an easier way to react
-is involved in the reaction mechanism
-provides a lower activation energy pathway
biolgical catalyst