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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
electrons and photons travel in:
the distance between the crest and the imaginary midpoint line is the:
characteristics of a long wavelength:
low frequency, low energies
examples of a continuous spectrum:
a packet of energy is called a:
synonym for discontinuous spectrum:
bright line spectrum
how are the wavelength and frequency of light related?
what is ionization energy?
the minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom
Why are noble gases particularly stable and relatively unreactive?
the last energy level is filled
define isoelectronic:
When two elements and/or ions have the same electronic configurations
name the major groups on the periodic table:
characteristics of metals:
chemically reactive, shiny, high density, ductile and malleable, high melting point, conducts electricity
characteristics of non-metals:
conducts heat and electricity poorly, forms acid oxides, dull and brittle, low density and melting point
characteristics of semi-metals(metalloids):
semiconductors, not malleable
the 8 metalloids:
Boron (B)
Silicon (Si)
Germanium (Ge)
Arsenic (As)
Antimony (Sb)
Tellurium (Te)
Polonium (Po)
what is a group on the periodic table and how many are there?
vertical columns, there are 18
What is a period on the periodic table, how many are there?
horizontal rows
ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom
as you go across the periodic table, energy increases
as you go down the periodic table ionization energy decreases
the tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element
as you go across, increases
as you go down, decreases
across, constant
down, increase
nuclear charge
the total charge of all the protons in the nucleus, it has the same value as the atomic number
across, increases
down, increases
valence electrons
amount of electrons in the last energy level. Valence electrons are important in determining how an element reacts chemically with other elements: The fewer valence electrons an atom holds, the less stable it becomes and the more likely it is to react
moving Left --> right
Atomic Radius Decreases
Ionization Energy Increases
Electronegativity Increases
moving Top --> bottom
Atomic Radius Increases
Ionization Energy Decreases
Electronegativity Decreases
ionic compounds
transfer electrons from one atom to another
high melting points
dissolve in water
conduct electricity
covalent compounds
share electrons
low melting points
dissolve in methanol
do not conduct electricity
less than or equal to .2
non-polar covalent
polar covalent
greater than or equal to 1.7
lewis dot structures
-For molecules with only 2 elements, arrange the atoms symmetrically
-“COOH” is a carboxylic acid (both O’s bond to the C and the H goes on one of the O’s)
Hydrogen and halogens cannot go in the middle
Write the remaining atoms in the order they appear in the formula
Write the hydrogen and halogen atoms around the element they are written next to in the formula
VSPER theory
a theory that predicts molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other
Nitrogen, Oxygen or Fluorine bonded with Hydrogen
Everthing has it