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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Signs of a chemical reaction...
-Color Change
- Solid forms
- Bubbles are produced
-A flame occurs
- Change in heat: either produced or absorbed
Chemical Reaction
The rearranging of the atoms in grouping
Chemical Equation
A representation of a chemical reaction showing through a reorganization of the atoms
- a starting substance in a chemical reaction
-A reactant is shown to the left of the arrow in a chemical equation
A substance resulting from a chemical reaction
-A product is shown to the right of the arrow in a chemical equation
Balancing the chemical equation
Making sure that there is the same number of each type of atom on the product side and the reactant side.
Physical states and their symbol
-Solid- s
-Liquid- l
-Gas- g
-Dissolved in water (aqueous solution)- aq
The smallest integers (whole numbers) put in front of elements in a chemical equation to balance it
Different reactions
-Bubbles (gas given off)
-Changes in color
-Becomes a solid
Driving forces
-formation of a solid
-formation of water
-transfer of electrons
-formation of a gas
the formation of a solid
the solid that forms
precipitation reaction
the reaction itself
- in virtually every case when a solid containing ions dissolves in water, the ions separate and move independently
-ions of the solid dissociate when the solid dissolves in water
strong electrolyte
a material that, when dissolved in water, dissociates (ionizes) completely and gives a solution that conducts an electric current very efficiently
Soluble solid
a solid that readily dissolves in water
-The solid “disappears” as the ions are dispersed in the water
Insoluble solid
a solid where such a tiny amount dissolves in water that it is undetectable with the naked eye
Slightly soluble solid
a solid where such a tiny amount dissolves in water that it is undetectable with the naked eye
molecular equation
shows the complete formulas of all reactants and products
Complete ionic equation
better represents all forms of the reactants and products in solution.
Spectator ions
ions that do not participate directly in a reaction in solution
Net ionic equation
shows only those components that are directly involved in the reaction
a substance that produces H+ ions (protons) when it is dissolved in water
strong acids
an acid that completely dissociates (ionizes) to produce H+ ion and the conjugate base
a substance that produces hydroxide ions in water
-NaOH (sodium hydroxide) is the most commonly used
Strong base
- a metal hydroxide compound that completely dissociates into its ions in water
-KOH (potassium hydroxide is common
Oxidation-reduction reaction
a reaction that involves a transfer of electrons
Double-displacement reaction
AB + CD -> AD + CB
Acid-base reactions
You can recognize an acid- base reaction because it involves an H+ ion that ends up in the product water
Single- replacement reaction
A + BC -> B +AC
Precipitation Reaction
a formation of a solid when two solutions are mixed
Acid-Base Reaction
-when a strong acid and a strong base are mixed and water is formed
-Examples of strong Acids: HCl (aq) and HNO3 (aq)
-Examples of strong bases: NaOH (aq) and KOH (aq)
Combustion Reaction
reactions that involve oxygen that produces energy so fast that make flames
Synthesis (Combination) reaction
when a given compound is formed from simpler materials
Decomposition Reactions
When a compound is broken down into simpler materials
1 mol = ...
6.022 x 1023
Mole ratio
a fraction relating the number of moles
Grams -> moles
divide by the molar mass
Moles -> grams:
multiply by the molar mass
Percent Yield:
% yield = actual yield/theoretical yeild x 100
The distance from one crest to another
how freguently the crests pass by a certain point
Electromagnetic Radiation
Light exists as waves
Tiny packet of energy
Ground State
State a which a wave length has the least amount of energy
Excited State
State at which a wave length has an excess amount of energy
a. Only certain levels of energy are allowed
b. Unable to stop in the middle
Pauli Exclusion Principle
There can only be 2 electrons occupying one orbital because 2 electrons with the same spin cannot be together
Electrons Spin...
-Clockwise or counterclockwise
-Electrons that spin in the same direction will repel each other
What are the principle energy levels?
1, 2, 3, 4…
What are the sublevels?
s, p, d, and f
How many orbitals does the s orbital have?
How many orbitals does the p have?
How many orbitals does the d orbital have?
how many orbitals does the f have?
Lanthanides occupy what orbital...
Actinides occupy what orbital?
Valence electrons
electrons in the outermost principle energy level
Core electrons
all electrons that are not valence
atomic size
the size of an atom
Ionization Energy
is the energy needed to remove an electron from an atom
force that holds atoms together
Bond Energy
energy needed to break a bond
Ionic Bond
bond between ions in which an electron is transferred
-Metal and nonmetal
Covalent Bond
electrons sharing
-Nonmetal and nonmetal
If it is above 2.0 difference it is ...
an ionic bond/compound
.4 < d < 2.0
Polar Covalent
< .4
Non polar Covalent
Dipole moment
compound has a center of positive charge and center of negative charge (you must have a polar covalent bond, but not every polar covalent bond has a dipole moment)
Metal Ions
have electron configurations similar to noble gas BEFORE them
Nonmetal Ions
have electron configurations similar to noble gas AFTER them
Lewis structure
a drawing that shows how valence electrons and atoms are arranged in the molecule.
Duet rule
Hydrogen & Helium
forms bonds to have 2 electrons
Octet rule
all other atoms need 8 electrons to be stable
Ione pairs
unshared pairs of electrons
double bond
4 electrons shared
triple bond
6 electrons shared
Resonance structure
more than 1 Lewis Structure for a molecule
Polyatomic Sharing
to show that it is a polyatomic, you must put brackets around it, and show the charge.
Boyle’s Gas Law
P1 V1 = P2 V2
Charles Gas Law
V1/T1 = V2/T2
Avogadro’s Law
V1/n1= V2/n2
Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT
Combined Gas Law
P1 V1 = n1R1T1
Dalton’s Gas Law
Ptotal = ntotal ( RT)
universal gas constant...
transition metals have how many valence electrons?
All Transition Metals have what sublevel?