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93 Cards in this Set

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What are the names and charges of all of the particles in the nucleus?
Protons (+)
Neutrons (-)
What is an isotope
a isotope is an atom that has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
Isotope Notation
(A/Z) X → (3/1) H

A= Mass number
Z= Atomic number
Hypen Notation
Hydrogen - 3
Mass Number
sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic Number
Number of protons and neutrons of an atom; that atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element
What is the Relationship between grams and atomic mass units
1 amu = 1.66 x 10^-27
What is avogadros number?
6.022 x 10^23
What is avogadros number used for
fundamental physical constant used to convert moles of a substance to a quantity of particles which make up that sucstanc
What is the relationship between c, λ and v?
λ = wavelength
v = frequency
c = speed of light (3.0 x 10^8)
c = λv of v =C/λ
What happens to an atom when it moves to its excited state?
Absorbs energy
Ground state
lowest possible enenergy level
Excited State
High energy level
Principal energy level
the principle energy level means a value indicating the distance that an electron may move away from the nucleus of an atom
Sublevel
orbital with a principal energy level
Orbital
region in an atom where there is a high probabilty of finding electrons
For a given energy level how many electrons are in s, p, f, d sublevel?
s = 2
P= 6
d= 10
f= 14
How many orbitals in s p f d
s = 1
p = 3
d = 5
f= 7
what are two forces in the nucleus?
Electrostatic Force and Strong Nuclear force
electrostatic force
pulls nuclei apart
strong nuclear force
holds nuclei together
alpha emission
(4/2) He
Restricted to heavy nuclei
Beta emission
(0/-1)β
Gamma Emission
0/0 Y
highest energy
no charge
Group numbers represent
number of valence electrons
Trend for ionization energy
increases left to right
decreases top to bottom
Trend for Atomic Radius
Decreases moving left to right
Increases moving top to bottom
Trend for electronegativity
increases left to right
decreases top to bottm
cations
positive
anions
negetive
Isoelectronic
species that have the same number of electrons and the same electron configuration
high ionization energy
positive ion
chemical bond
attractive forve that holds atoms or ions
Polarity
a property of a system in which two points have opposite characteristics such as chargers
Characteristics of Ionic Bonds
-High melting point
-Bonds are strong
-hard brittle
-good insulators
-conduct electricity
Dipole-dipole forces
polar
london dispersion
all forces
Aufbau Principle
Aufbau is German for Building up; its the principle that electrons fill energy levels from the bottom up
Hunds Rule
maximum multiplicity describes the order in which electrons fill subshells. It states that they will add into degerate orbitals to create the greatest multitude of orbitals having an electron in them
Pauli Exclusion principle
No two electrons or protons or neutrons in a given system can be in states characterized by the same set of quantum numbers
saturated hydrocarbons
organic compound formed only by carbon and hydrogen linked by single bonds
Percent Composition
percentage by mass of each element in a compound
Empirical Formula
chemical formula that shows the composition of a compound in terms of the relative numbers and kinds of atoms in the simplest ration
molecular formular
chemical formula that shows the number and kids of atoms in a molecule but not the arrangement of the atoms
Unsaturated solution
solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution does and thus is able to dissolve additional solute
Saturated Solution
solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under given conditions
supersaturated solution
solution that holds more dissolved solute than required to reach equilibrium
Solute
substance that dissolves in the solvent
solvent
substance in which the solute dissolves
hydrates
molecule that contains some type of water
Electrolytes
Any of various ions, such as sodium, potassium, or chloride, required by cells to regulate the electric charge and flow of water molecules across the cell membrane
Molarity
The concentration unit of solution expressed as moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution

M = mol/Liter
Molality
The concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilograms of solvent
m = mol / Kg
PPT
parts per thousand

1 x 10 ^ -3
PPM
Parts per million

1 x 10 ^-6
PPB
Parts per Billion 1 x 10^-9
Dilution
Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution
M1V1 = M2V2
What is Kc
Products over Reactants
What is oxidation states
the condition of an atom expressed by the number of electrons that that atom needs to reach its elemental form
Oxidation Numbers
indicate the general distribution of electrons among the bonded atoms in a molecular compound of molecular ion
What is Oxidation?
Loss of Electrons
Half Reaction
Na --> Na(+) + e-
Reduction
Gain
Half Reaction
Cl2 + 2e- --> 2Cl-
Binary Synthesis
Two elements mis to form a compound (always redox)
A + X --> AX
Metal Oxides in water (synthesis
Never redox
Format: MO (s) + H20(l) -> M(OH)2(s)
Binary Decomposition
Always redox
Format: AX-->A + X
What is Oxidation?
Loss of Electrons
Half Reaction
Na --> Na(+) + e-
Reduction
Gain
Half Reaction
Cl2 + 2e- --> 2Cl-
Binary Synthesis
Two elements mis to form a compound (always redox)
A + X --> AX
Metal Oxides in water (synthesis
Never redox
Format: MO (s) + H20(l) -> M(OH)2(s)
Binary Decomposition
Always redox
Format: AX-->A + X
Metal Carbonate Decomposistion
Never Redox
Format: MCO3 --> MO (s) + CO2(g)
Metal Hydroxide Decomposition
Never Redox
Format: M(OH)2(s) --> MO + H2O
Metal Chlorate Decomposition
Always redox

MCLO3 (S) --> MCL (s) + O2
Acid decomp (oxyacids only)
Sometimes redox
HXOy (aq) --> XOy-1 (g) + H2O (l)
Single replacement
Metal Replacement
A+BX --> AX (aq) + B2 (g)
Single Replacement Halogen Replacement
Y2 (g) + BX (s) --> BY (s) + B2 (g)
Double replacement with no precipitate
No Reaction occurs
Double Replacement Precipitate
Never redox
AX (aq) + BY (aq) --> AY (s) + BX (aq)
Carbon Combustion
Products are always oxygen gas and water vapor
EX: C4H10 (l) + O2 --> CO2 (g) +H2) (g)
Equations associated with pH and pOH
pH + pOH = 14
[H+][OH-] = 1 x 10^-14
pH = -log [H+]
[H+] = 10^-pH
pOH = -log [OH-]
[OH-] = 10^-pOH
Characteristics of acids
sour, react with bases to produce salt and water, react with metals to produce hydrogen gas and conduct electric current
Svante Arrhenius Definition of Acid
substances that ionize in water and increase the number of hydrogen ions
Bronsted-Lowry Def. Acids
H+ donors
Characteristics of Bases
bitter, slippery, react with acids to produce salt and water and conduct electric current
Svante Arrenius Definition of Bases
substance that ionizes in water and increases the number of hydroxide ions
Bronsted Lowry Definition of Base
H+ Acceptors
How to convert between Pressure Units
1 atm = 760 torr = 14.7 lb/in = 101.325 kPascal
Boyle's Law
p1V1=P2V2
Charles law
V1/T1=V2/T2
Gay-lussacs Law
P1T2=P2T1
Combines Gas Law
V2 = (p1)(T2)(V1)/(p2)(t1)
Dalton's law of partial pressure
states that the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture
p1+p2+p3....=ptotal
Graham's law of Effusion
Rate1 / Rate2 = square root of (Mass2 / Mass 1)