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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
science
a system of knowledge and the methods you use to find the knowledge
matter
material of which all substances that exsist are made
pure substance
matter which has a constant, uniform composition
example of a pure substance
Table Salt NaCl
element
type of matter which cannot be broken into a smaller substance
compound
pure substance that has basic units which are more than 1 type of atom
atom
basic building blocks of matter
chemical symbols
Al, Cu, O, N, and Sn
mixture
physical blending or combinations of more than one substance
homogeneous
evenly blended so that it is uniform throughout
heterogeneous
unevenly blended not uniform
Solution
when substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture
suspension
a heterogeneous mixture thatseparates into layers over time
colloid
contains some particles that are intermediate size between the small particles in a solution and the big particles in a suspension
solute
substance being dissolved
solvent
substance doing the dissolving
qualitative
description
quantative
measurement
scientific method
an organized plan used for gathering organizing and communicating info.
observations
info. obtained through the senses
manipulated variable
causes a change in another
responding variable
changes in response to the mainpulated
controlled/ constant expieriment
only one variable, the manipulated, is deiberately changed at a time
meter
distance
gram
mass
liter
volume
kilo-
1000L
deci-
1/10
centi-
1/100
milli-
1/1000
manipulative
independent (what you control) on the x axis
responding
dependent (what depends on the independent) on the y axis
malleability
the ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering
conductivity
a material's ability to allow heat to flow
viscosity
the tendancy of a liquid to keep from flowing- its resistance to flowing
melting point
temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid
density
can be used to test the purity of a substance
boiling point
the temperature a which a substance boils
hardness
the resistance of a mineral from scratching
freezing point
temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid
physical properties
malleability, conductivity, viscosity, density, melting(freezing) and boiling point, and hardness
physical changes
filtration distillation chromatography and changes of state
filtration
a process that separates materials based on the size of their particles
distillation
a process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points
changes of state
liquid ice water vapor
chemical properties
flammability rusting and reactivity
flammability
a material's ability to burn in the presence of oxygen
rusting
brittle redish brown compound that forms when oxygen reacts with iron and water
reactivity
the property that describes how readily a substance combines chemically with other substances
evidence of chemical changes
change is color, production in gas, formation of precipitation, light or heat given off
chemical change
occurs when a substance reacts and forms one or more new substances
chemical equations for water and carbon dioxide
H20 and CO2
what are solids at room temperature?
metals
what is a liquid at room temperature?
mercury
what are gases at room temp.?
nonmetals
what are three reasons to use physical properties?
identifying a metal, choosing a material for a specific purpose, and separating substances in a mixture
solid
definite shape and volume
liquid
definite volume no definite shape
gas
no definite shape or volume
kinetic energy
energy an object has due to its motion
how can materials be classified?
as solids liquids and gases based on whether their shapes and volumes are definite or variable
the kinetic theory of matter
states that all particles of matter are in constant motion
there are forces of attraction among what?
particles in matter
the constant motion of particles in a gas allows what?
a gas to fill a container of any shape or size
why does a liquid take the shape of its container?
particles in a liquid can flow to new locations
why is the volume of a liquid constant?
forces of attraction keep the particles close together
why do solids have a definite shape and volume?
particles in a solid vibrate around fixed locations
Democritus
beleived that all matter consisted of extremely small particles that could not be divided
aristotle
thought there was no limit to how many times matter could be divided and though all subs. were built up from the four elements of fire earth air and water
Dalton
Dalton proposed the theory that all matter is made up of individual particles called atoms, which cannot be divided
Thomson
first evidence that atoms are made of even smaller particles
Rutherford
all of an atoms positive charge is contained in its nucleus
Bohr
electrons move with constant speed in fixed orbits around the nucleus
Electron Cloud
visual model of the most likely locations for the electrons in an atom
what are the three subatomic particles?
proton neutron and electron
what is the charge size and location of a proton?
+1 charge, in nucleus, and size is equal with the mass on a neutron
what is the charge size and location of a neutron?
neutral sharge, in nucleus, and size is equal with the mass of a proton
what is the charge size and location of an electron?
-1 charge, found in space outside of nucleus, and size is much smaller than protons and neutrons (1000 e- = 1 proton)
how do atoms of different elements differ?
in # of protons
what is the difference in isotopes of the same element?
number of neutrons
electron configuration
arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom
internal structure of atoms
diagrams we did with davidson
nucleus
dense positively charged mass located in the center of the atom
relate orbitals, energy levels, and electrons
1st energy level- 2 e-
2nd "- 8 e-
3rd "- 18 e-
proton
positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
neutron
a neutral subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom
electron
negatively charged subatomic particle found outside of the nucleus
atomic number
number of protons in an atom of that element
mass number
sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of that element
isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons and mass numbers
energy levels
possible energies that an electron can have
electron cloud
a visual model of most likely locations for electrons in an atom
ion
an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
who is mendeleev and what were his contributions?
Mendeleev arranged the elements into rows in order of increasing mass so that elements with similar properties were in the same column
why was Mendeleev's periodic table such a good model?
because of the close match btwn. his predictions and the actual properties of the new elements
periodic law
properties of elements repeat in a predictable way when atomic numbers are used to arrange elements into groups
period/series
each row in a table of elemetns with increasing mass from left to right
group/family
each group on the periodic table with similiar properties
parts of the modern periodic table
metals nonmetals and metalloid
what can u identify about the element from the periodic table entry?
atomic number atomic mass symbol and element name
difference between a metal nonmetal and metalloid
metals are good conductors of electric curren and heat nonmetals are the opposite and metalloids properties fall somewhere in between those of metals and nonmetals
electron configurations relate to the P.T. how?
the arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom
valence electrons
an electron in the highest outer energy level
electron dot diagram
tells how many valence electrons
alkali metals
1A
Alkali Earth Metals
2A
Boron Family
3A
Carbon fam.
4A
Nitrogen family
5A
oxygen family
6A
halogens
7A
noble gases
8A- unreactive
transition elements
all elements without groups
inner transition/rare earth metals
bottom of the P.T. no attached
octect rule
having a stable electron configuration
ionic bonding
the force that holds cations and anions together
ionic solid's properties
reactive
covalent bonding
chemical bond in which 2 atoms share a pair of valence electrons
molecular formulas
tell exact numbers
cation
ion with + charge
anion
ion with - charge
crystal lattice
particles arranged in a lattice structure
molecule
a neutral group of atoms that are joined by one or more covalent bonds
diatomic molecule
a group of atoms joined together by 2 covalent bonds
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction- mass is conserved when you balance an equation