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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes
(type of chem.) the study of most carbon-containing components
organic chemistry
(type of chem.)
the study of all substances not classified as organic, mainly those compounds that do not contain carbon
inorganic chemistry
(type of chem.)
the study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
physical chemistry
(type of chem.)
the identification of the components and composition of materials
analytical chemistry
(type of chem.)
the study of substances and processes occuring in living things
(type of chem.)
the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds
theoretical chemistry
any substance that has a definite shape composition
research carried out to solve a problem
applied research
development involving the production and use of products that improve our quality of life
technological development
research carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge
basic research
a measure of the amount of matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded
properties that depend on the amount of matter that is present
extensive properties
properties that do not depend on the amount of matter present
intensive properties
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identtity of the substance
physical property
a change in a substnace that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
physical change
a physical change of a substance from one state to another
change of state
matter that has a definite volume and definite shape
matter that has a definite volumbe but an indefinite shape
matter that has neither definite volume nor defnite shape
a high temerature physical state of matter in which atoms lose their electrons
relates to a substnace's ability to undergo changes that trnsform it into different substances
chemical property
a change in which one or more substances are conerted into different substances
chemical change
chemical reaction
substances that react in a chemical change
substances that are formed by the chemical change
a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties
mixtures that are uniform in composition
mixtures that are not uniform throughout
a substance has a fixed composition and differs from a mixture in the following ways:
1) Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same charcteristic properties
2) Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same components
pure substance
the vertical columns of the periodic table
the horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table
an element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity
an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
an element that has some characteristics of metals and some characterstics of nonmetals
a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data
scientific method
a testable statement
a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena
something that has magnitude, size, or amount
a measure of the gravitational pull on matter
the ratio of mass to volume, or mass divided by volume
the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quanity
the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way
a measurement consisting of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or estimated
significant figures
mass is neither destroyed nor created during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes
law of conservation of mass
a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound
law of definite proportions
if two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole number
law of multiple proportions
the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element
short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron froces holding the nuclear particles together
nuclear forces
the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element
atomic number
atoms of the same element that have different masses
any isotope of any element
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope
mass number
the weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
average atomic mass
the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
what is avogadro's number?
6.022 x 10^23
the mass of one mole of a pure substance
molar mass
form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
electromagnetic radiation
all the forms of radiation form this
electromagnetic spectrum
the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time
the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
photoelectric effect
the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum energy
lowest energy state of an atom
ground state
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
excited state
h x v
(planck's constant, 6.636 x 10^-34)(frequency)
states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other paricle
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small paricles
quantum theory
a 3-D region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
quantum numbers
symbolized by n, indicates the main energy level occupid by an electron
principal quantum number
symbolized by l, indicates the shape of the orbital
angular momentum
symbolized by m, indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus
magnetic quantum number
has only two possible values (+1/2, -1/2) which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
spin quantum number
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
electron configuration
states that an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can recieve it
Aufbau principle
states that no tow electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Pauli exclusion principle
states that orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin
Hund's rule
The Group 18 elements
noble gases
the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
periodic law
the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table
alkali metals
the elements of Group 2 of the periodic table
alkaline-earth metals
the elements of Group 17 of the periodic table
One-half the distance between the nuclei of idential atoms that are bonded together
atomic radius
an atom or group of bonded atoms that has a postitive or negative charge
the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element
ionization energy
the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
electron affinity
a positive ion
a negative ion
the electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
valence electrons
a measure of the ablility of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together
chemical bond
chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions
ionic bonding
results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms
covalent bonding
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
nonpolar-covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons
polar-covalent bond
A chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
molecular compound
indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kindin a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts
chemical formula
shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
molecular formula
a molecule containing only two atoms

diatomic molecule
the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy; the average distance between two bonded atoms
bond length
the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolates atoms
bond energy
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atoms, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octed of electrons in its highest occupied energy level
octet rule
an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol
electron-dot notation
a pair of electrons that is not involved in bodning and that belongs exclusively to one atom
unshared pair/
lone pair
in a covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms
single bond
in a covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms
double bond
in a covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms
triple bond
bonding moleculse or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure
composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
ionic compound
the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
lattice energy
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
polyatomic ion
the chemical bonding that resluts from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons
metallic bonding
the ablility of a substnace to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets
the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a shamll opening to produce a wire
Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion
the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies
the forces of attraction between molecules
intermolecular forces
created by equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance
the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constance motion of electrons and the creation of intstantaneous dipoles
London dispersion forces