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39 Cards in this Set

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a solution in which the solvent is water
aqueous solution
a compound that produces hydrogen ions in solution, is a hydrogen ion donor or electron pair acceptor
acid
a substance that can act as both an acid and a base;water is an example
amphoteric
one half the distance between the nuclei in a molecule consisting of identical atoms
atomic radius
compound that produces hydroxide ions in solution, is a hydrogen ion acceptor, or an electron pair donor
base
the number of ions of opposite charge that surround each ion in a crystal
coordination number
a covalent bond formed when one atom contributes both bonding electrons
coordinate covalent bond
a liquid mixture containing particles that are intermediate in size between those of a suspension and a true solution; these particles are evenly distributed throughout the liquid and do not settle out with time
colloid
the quantity of heat that raises the temperature of 1 g of pure water
calorie
a measurement of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent; usually expressed as mol/L
concentration
substance that removes sufficient water from the air to form a solutioin; the solution formed has a lower vapor pressure than that of the water in the air
deliquescent
a hygroscopic substance used as a drying agent
desiccant
the amount of energy required to break a covalent bond between atoms; this value is usually expressed in kj per mol of substance
bond dissociation energy
the heat content of a system at constant pressure
enthalpy
the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of an atom in its ground state
electron configuration
the tendancy for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element
electronegativity
notation that depicts valence electrons as dots around the atomic symbol of the element; the symbol represents the inner electrons and atomic nucleus
electron dot structure
compound that conducts an electric current in aqueous solution or ni the molten state
electrolyte
the lowest energy level occupied by an electron when an atom is in its most stable energy state
ground state
describs salts and other compounds that remove moisture from the air
hygroscopic
strong intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom in the same molecule or one nearby
hydrogen bond
any member of the nonmetallic elements in group 7A of the periodic table
halogen
energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom
ionization energy
the electrostatic attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together
ionic bond
the SI unit of energy; 4.184 J equal this
calorie
the force of attraction that holds metals together
mettalic bond
the concentration of solute in a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution
molarity
the ratio of the moles of solute in solutoion to the total number of moles of both solvent and solute
mole fraction
any member of a group of gaseous elements in group 0; the s and p sublevels of their outermost energy level are filled
noble gas
atoms react by gaining or losing electrons so as to aquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas, usually eight valence electrons
octet rule
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
period
when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
periodic law
a quantum of light; a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that behaves as a particle
photon
a bond formed when two different atoms are joined by a covalent bond and the bonding electrons are shared unequally
polar covalent bond
a solution containing the maximum amount of solute for a given amount of solvent at a constant temprature and pressure
saturated solution
dissoved particles in a solution
solute
a homogeneous mixture
solution
the dissolving medium in a solution
solvent
the amound of a substance that dissolvesin a given quantity of solvent at specified conditions of temperature and pressure to produce a saturated solution
solubility