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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Matter
-It has mass
-It takes up space
Solid
o Definite shape
oDefinite volume
oVibrations
oClosely packed
Liquid
o Takes shape of it’s container
oDefinite volume
oSlight movement
oMore loosely packed than a solid
Gas
o Takes shape of it’s container
o Indefinite volume
o Move freely
o Very spread out
atoms
Atoms are the smallest unit of matter
Elements
substances made from only 1 type of atom.
Compounds
substances made by combing 2 or more types of atoms.
- A compound is made up of different elements, but it always has the same composition.
Molecules
substances made from combined atoms
- Molecules are bonded together.
Physical property
: a characteristic that can be sense. They can be determined without changing the composition of the element.
- Color
- Odor
- Volume
- State
- Melting and boiling points
Chemical property
ability of a substance to change into other substances.
- Flammability and reactions with other acids
- Example: The copper sheets that form the “skin” of the Statue of Liberty have acquired and greenish coating over the years.
Physical change
a change of physical properties without changing the substance; a change of state.
- Example: a rock is broken into small pieces.
Chemical change
a change in which the substance changes.
- Example: Iron combines with oxygen to form rust.
Homogeneous mixture
a mixture that is the same throughout.
o Ex: salt and water
Solution
another name for a homogeneous mixture
Heterogeneous mixture
- a mixture that contains regions that have different properties from those of other regions
o Ex: mixture of sand and water
Distillation
a separation process that involves boiling water and leaving behind other minerals as solids
Filtration
- a physical method of separating minerals. Involves pouring a liquid through a mesh, such as filter paper, to separate the liquid from any solids.
Robert Boyle
first scientist to realize measuring was important
J.J Thompson
discovered electrons
Lord Kelvin
pudding model (Big positively charged pudding, with little raisins with a negative charge)
Rutherford
1911 – performed his Gold foil experiment
discovered proton and nucleus
Chadwick
1932 - discovered the neutron, which has no charge
Mendeleev
figured out the periodic table
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
‘Law of Constant Composition’
1. all elements are made of tiny particles; atoms
2. all atoms of a given element are identical (this is not true today)
3. atoms of a given element are different from all others
4. atoms of different element can combine to form compounds in a given form.
5. atoms not created or destroyed in a chemical process. They change the way they group together.
Groups
vertical columns on periodic table with similar properties.
Names of the columns of elements?
a) Alkali metals: 1A
b) Alkaline earth Metals: 2A
c) Halogens: 7A
d) Noble Gases: 8A- don’t bound with anything
e) In the middle of 2A and 7A are transition metals.
Metals
- solid at Room Temp.( 25 degress celicus)- expect Mercury
- shiny
- Malleable: able to be flattened into sheets
- Conduct heat and electricity
- Ductile: ability to be stretched into wires
Non- metals
- solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature
- not shiny
- non malleable
- not a conductor of heat or electricity
- non ductile
Metalloids
- touching the stair step expect for Aluminum which is a metal and Boron is a non metal
Alltrope
different forms of pure element
Diatomics
oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine, iodine, bromine
Diatomic molecules
molecules made up of two atoms
isotopes
atoms of the same element with different # of neutrons
Ions
are produced by adding or removing one or more electrons.
Cation
positive ion
One or more electrons are lost from a neutral atom
Anion
negative ion
One or more electrons are gained from a neutral atom
Ionic compounds
when a compound forms between a metal and a nonmetal, it can be expected to contain these
If a compound contains ions, it must:
1. there must be both positive ions (cations) and negative ions (anions) present.
2. the numbers of cations and anions must be such that the net charge is zero.
Type 1 Compounds
2 elements
~ Metal
~ Nonmetal
* Not transition metals*
(I- D- E)
How to name type 1 compounds:
KCl – Potassium chloride
Type 2 Compounds
Ionic compounds
 2 elements
~ Metal
~ Nonmetal
* Transition metals*
(Roman Numeral)
How to name type 2 compounds:
Fe3O2- Iron (III) oxide
Type 3 Compounds
Non ionic compound
 2 non metals
(Use prefixes)
Note- do not use the prefix mono on the first element
Mono
Di
Tri
Trenta
Penta
Hexa
Hepta
Octa
Polyatomic
If a polyatomic ends in I-T-E use Hypo
If a polyatomic ends in A-T-E use Per
How to name a polyatomic
I-T-E- Sulfite- Hyposulfite
A-T-E- Sulfate- Persulfate
Acids
 Acids always named with H+ and an anion
 If an acid does not have oxygen:
Name by: Hydro- element name- ic acid
Example: Iodine- Hydroiodic acid
 If an acid does have oxygen:
Name by: changing the ending of the anion
A-T-E-: ic acid
I-T-E: ous acid
Example:
HNO3- nitric acid
HNO2- nitrous acid
Scientific Notation
a number between 1 & 10 multiplied by a power of ten
Qualitative
describing based on looks
Quantitative
based on a measurement (needs a number and a unit)
Adding and Subtracting exponents...
exponents must be equal
Multiplying exponents...
multiply numbers, and add exponents
Dividing exponents...
divide numbers and subtract exponents
Units/ Measurement
o Length – Meter (m)
o Mass – Kilograms (kg)
o Time – seconds (s)
o Temperature – Kelvin (K)
Significant Digits
o All non zero # are significant
o Leading zeros are not sig.
o Captive zeros are sig.
o Trailing zeros:
 If there is a decimal point then they are sig.
 Not decimal point means they are not sig.
Celsius to Kelvin
C + 273
Kelvin to Celsius
K – 273
Fahrenheit to Celsius
F – 32/ 180
Celsius to Fahrenheit
180 (C) + 32
Density of water
1.00 g/mL
Density =
mass/volume
Mole
the number equal to the number of atoms that has a mass of grams
Atomic mass
1 mole of atoms in grams
Avogadro’s number
6.022 x 1023
Moles to grams
multiply by mass
Grams to moles
divide by mass
Moles to atoms
multiply by Avogadro’s number
Atoms to moles
divide by Avogadro’s number
Molar mass
the mass in grams of 1 mol of the substance
Mass Percent
The percent by mass of a component of a mixture or of a given element in a compound
Percent Composition
1. Find the molar mass of a compound
2. Divide each individual elements mass by the molar mass of the compound
3. Multiply the quotient by 100
Molecular Formula
The exact formula of a molecule giving the types of atoms and the number of each type
Empirical Formula
- The simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound.
Calculating Empirical Formulas
1. Step 1-Find the mass of each element
2. Step 2-Divide the given mass of an element by the its atomic mass (Convert into moles)
3. Step 3- Divide all moles by the smallest number of moles
4. Multiply the molar amounts to get whole numbers