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57 Cards in this Set

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Ionic bonds properties
-High melting point
-conduct electric current when melted or dissolved
-soluble in water
-usually crystallize
-held together by electrostatic force
-compounds are electrically neutral
-crystalline soids at room temperature
Ionic bonds-
composed of formula, lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound
molecule-
smallest particle of a compound that retains all the properties of the compound (covalently bonded)
oxidation energy-
positive or negative number assigned to an atom
Hydrogens oxidation energy is
+1 except in hydrides where it is negative one
Oxygen oxidation number is
-2 except peroxides where it is -1
free element=
0
compounds
oxidation numbers sum to zero
polyatomic ions sum of oxidation numbers must
equal ionic charge of the ion
polyatomic-
many atoms grouped together (bonds that have a covalent bond and have charge)
Electronegativity determines
bond character
The greater the DiFferEnCE between electronegativity
the more ionic the bond becomes
The more electornegativity difference
the StRonGer the bond strength
Electronegativity trend
all bonds have some ions and covelant characteristics execept when diatomic!
If the change in electronegativity is less than 0.5
the bond is non polar covelant (covelant bond where the electrons are shared equally)
If the change in electronegativity is between 0.5 and 1.6
the bond is considered polar covalent (covelant bond where the electrons arent equally distributed)
If the change in electronegativity is greater than 1.6
the bond is usually ionic
Coordination number
number of ions of oppostite charge that surrounds an ion in a crystal
Bonding in Metals
valence electrons known as a sea of electrons also called the delocalized electrons
metalic bonds
delocalized electrons attracted to positivley charged metal ions
Properties of metalic bonds
conductors, ductile and malleable (cations slide past one another due to the protection of "sea of electrons" ; reshape themselves
Ionic compounds
ions linked together by electrostatic force (opp. charges), dont have properties of ductility and malleablity (shatter on impact)
the Law of Definite Proportions
for any given compound, the masses of the element are always in the same proportion
the Law of multiple proportions
whenever the same 2 element form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass (constant)of the other element are in the ratio of small to whole numbers
1-
2-
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
mono
di
tri
tetra
penta
hexa
hepta
octa
nona
deca
stannic
(tin) +4
stannous
(tin) +2
plumbic
(iron) +4
plumbous
(iron) +2
Mercuric
Hg +2
Mercurous
Hg +2
2
Cobaltic
+3
Cobaltous
+2
Cupric
+2
Cuprous
+1
Ferric
+3
Ferrous
+2
NO -
3
nitrate
NO -
2
nitrite
SO 2-
4
sulfate
SO 2-
3
sulfite
BO -3
3
Borate
BO -3
2
Borite
IO -
3
Iodate
IO -
2
Iodite
perchlorate
ClO -
4
chlorate
ClO -
3
ClO -
2
chlorite
ClO
Hypochlorate
Acid:
Anion ends in -ide
prefix= hydro-
suffix= -ic
Acid:
Anion ends in -ate
NO prefix
-ic ending
Acid:
Anion ends in -ite
(polyatomic ion)
NO prefix
-ous ending
CuS
Copper II sulfide
Cu S
2
Copper I oxide
FeO
Iron II oxide
Fe O
2 3
Iron III oxide (rust)
Abnormalities in oxidation
Zn +2
Ag +
Sn +2 or +4
Pb +2
Pb +4