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24 Cards in this Set

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Temperature/Heat
Heat is energy thats flows from a hotter to colder object
Temperature is a property that determines the direction of heat flow
Calorie/Kcal/Joule
1 kcal = 4.184 kj
1 kcal = 1 Calorie
1kcal = 1 cal
Relationship of Life expectancy to energy consumption
Higher energy consumption = higher life expectancy
Exothermic
Any physical or chemical exchnage accompanied by the release of heat, is negative but heat of combustion is positive, colder to hotter
Endothermic
Any chemical reaction that absorbs energy, is positive but heat of combustion is negative, hotter to colder
Heat of Combustion
Quantity of heat energy given off when a specified amount of a substance burns in oxygen

Heat/mole * mole/molar mass= heat of combustion per gram
Energy of Activation
Energy necessary to initiate a reaction. Also determines whether a substance can be used as fuel. Cant be too fast or too slow
Calculating Bond Energies
First do the lewis dot then add up all the reactions then take all the bonds on each side then substact the right side from the left
Natural Gas
Advantages Burns more completely, cleaner, less CO2
Disadvantages leaks from transmission line causing environmental damage
Production of Fossil Fuels
Originates from decayed plants and animals (Oil, coal, natural gas)
Different Kinds of Coal
Soft lignite and brown coal are the lower grades, bituminous and anthracite are higher grades
Advantages of Coal
Stable and efficient
Disadvantages of Coal
coal mining is dangerous,accidents, health of miners, greenhouse gases - CO2 and CH4, acid rain SO2 and NO2, pollution and acid rain can contrib. to cancer risk, respiratory illness
Advantages of Oil/Petroleum
Easy to transport and pump, more erfficient
Disadvantages of Oil/Petroleum
acid rain, volatile organic compounds, spills, leaks, wildlife, shore and water
Isomer
Different compounds with the same chemical formula, different bonds
Octane Rating
Higher Octane rating Reduces knocking
Biomass
Materials produced by biological processes
FFV (Flexible fuel vehicle)
85% ethanol and the newest alternative fuel to be formulated
Biogas
usually natural renewable resources such as veg oils and animal fats blended with petroleum products
Energy Transformation
Cannot me created or destroyed.. efficiency equation is T Hi - T Low/ T Hi
Entropy
Second Law of thermodynamics, Randomness in energy. Is increasing in the universe
RFG
Oxygenated gasolines that also contain a lower percentage of certain volatile hydrocarbons such as benzene found in nonoxgenated conventional gas
MTBE
methyl tertiary butyl ether, Neurotoxin, finds its way into drinking water