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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
soluble
capable of being dissolved
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase.
homogeneous
uniform throughout, mixed equally throughout
solvent
dissolving medium in a solution
solute
substance dissolved in a solution
suspension
particles in a solvent are so large that they settle out unless the mixture is constantly stirred or agitated
colloid
particles are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions
tyndall effect
occurs when light is scattered by colloidal particles dispersed in a transparent medium
will scatter light
colloid will
electrolyte
substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current
nonelectrolyte
substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct electric current
solution equilibrium
physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates
saturated solution
solution that contains the maximum amout of dissolved solute
unsaturated solution
solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under the existing conditions
supersaturated solution
solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains under the same conditions
solubility
amount of a substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature.
hydration
the attraction between water molecules and the ions that is strong enough to draw the ions away from the crystal surface and into the solution
immiscible
liquid solutes and solvents taht are not soluble in each other (unmixable)
miscible
liquids that dissolve freely in one another in any proportion (mixable)
Henry's Law
the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
effervescence
rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it is dissolved
solvated
solute particle surrounded by solvent molecules
heat of solution
amount of heat energy absorbed or released when a specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent
negative heat of solution
heat is released, exothermic (hot)
positive heat of solution
heat is absorbed, endothermic (cold)
concentration
measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
molarity (M)
moles of solute
_______________
liters of solution
molality (m)
moles of solute
_______________
kg of solvent
molecules whose water solutions conduct electric current
ionize in water
3 things that increase the rate at which a solid dissolves in water
raising the temp
stirring
crushing the solid
when the energy released by the formation of solvent-solute attractions is greater than the energy absorbed by overcoming solute-solute and solvent-solvent attractions, the dissolving process
has a negative heat of solution
Henry's law relates
pressure to gas-liquid solubility
raising the temp of a solvent causes solvent-solvent collisions to become
more frequent and more energetic
solubility of a solute depends on
the nature of the solute and the temp
a solution that contains a high concentration of solute but than can hold even more solute is
unsaturated and concentrated
as temp increases, the solubility of gases in liquids
decreases
mixture that scatters light
colloid (also suspension)
substance that does not dissolve in a polar solvent is probably
nonpolar
to conduct electricity, a solution must contain
ions (electrolytes)
mixtures are classified according to their
phases (concentration)
homogeneous mixture that contains particles in a dispersed phase that do not settle our is a(n)
solution
dissolution processes with negative heats of solution are___________processes
exothermic
increasing the temp ___________ gas solubility
decreases
increasing the temp ___________ the solubility of solids
increases
alloy
solution whose solute and solvent are both solid metals
"like dissolves like"
polar solute dissolves in a polar solvent. (same for nonpolar)
if something dissolves in water it is
polar (water is polar)
boiling of water
endothermic
freezing of water
exothermic
(un)dilute
not quantized