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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
most substances commonly exist in one of the three states of matter:
solid, liquid, or gas
how may a substance change from one state to another state?
change in temperature
what does the word kinetic refer to
what is the energy an object has because of its motion
kinetic energy
what does the kinetic theory state
1. a gas is composed of particles
2. the particles move rapidly in constant motion
3. all collisions are perfectly elastic
according to the kinetic theory, what is between the particles
empty space
no attractive or repulsive forces exist
which state of matter fills their containers regardless of te shape and volume of the container?
what type of gases diffuse into space without limit
when do gas particles change direction
when they rebound from collisions with one another or with other objects
what is the average speed of oxygen molecules in air at 20*C is
1700 km/hour
why doesn't the odor molecules from a cheese pizza in Washington D.C. reach Mexico City in about 106 minutes?
because the odor molecules are constantly striking molecules of air and rebounding in other directions.

their path of uninterrupted travel in a straight line is very short
what is the aimless path the gas molecules take called
random walk
what does it mean that all collisions are elastic (kinetic theory)
during collisions kinetic energy is transferred without loss from one particle to another, and the total kinetic energy remains constant
although a single gas particle is a moving body, the force it exerts is
extremely small
what is the result of simultaneous collisions of billions of gas particles with an object
gas pressure
what is gas pressure defined as
the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object
if there are no gas particles present...
there cannot be a collision or pressure
what is an empty space with no particles and no pressure called
a vacuum
why does air exert pressure on Earth
because gravity holds air molecules in Earth's atmosphere
what results from the collisions of air molecules with objects
atmospheric pressure
atmostpheric pressure _____ as you climb a mountain because the air layer around Earth thins out as elevation _______
decreases, increases
what are devices commonly used to measure atmospheric pressure
what is atmospheric pressure dependent on
the SI unit of pressure is
pascal (Pa)
what is atmospheric pressure at sea level
101.3 kPa
what are two older units of pressure
mm Hg & atm
what is the origins of the units of mm Hg & atm
the early use of mercury barometers that was a straight glass tube filled with mercury and closed at one end

the tube was placed in a dish of mercury so that the open end was below the surface of the mercury in the dish

the height of mercury in the tube depended on the pressure created by collisions of air molecules with the surface of mercury in the dish
at sea level, the pressure is sufficient to support a mercury column is
760 mm
what is the pressure required to support 760 mm of mercury in a mercury barometr at 25*C.
standard atmosphere (atm)
3 conversions
1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 101.3 kPa
many modern barometers do not contain ______ and are called ____________
mercury, aneroid barometers
how is atmospheric pressure related to in barometers
the number of collisions of air molecules with a sensitive metal diaphragm, which controls the movement of a pointer, which in turn indicates the pressure reading
what are standard conditions defined as

what is the set of conditions called
a temperature of 0*C
a pressure f 101.3 kPa
1 atm

standard temperature and pressure or STP
what happens when a substance is heated
the particles of the substance absorb energy, some of which is stored within the particles.
what is the stored portion of the energy
potential energy
potential energy does not _____ the temperature of the substance
the remaining absorbed energy speeds up the particles, a.k.a.
increases their average kinetic energy, which results in an increase in temperature
the particles in any collection of atoms or molecules at a given temperature have a wide range of ________, from _____ to ______
kinetic energies
low, very high
where do most particles have kinetic energies
in the middle of low and high
kinetic energy is used when discussing
the kinetic energy of a collection of particles in a substance
the higher temperature, ther is a _____________ of kinetic energies
wider range
an increase in the average kinetic energy of particles causes the temperature of a substance to
as a substance cools, the particles tend to move more _____, and their average kinetic energy ______
you could reasonably expect the particles of all substances to stop moving at some very ___ temperature

the particles woudl have no kinetic energy at that temperature because

they would have no motion
what is absolute zero
0 K or -273.15*C

the temperature at which the motion of particles theoretically increases
what does the Kelvin temperature scale reflect
the relationship between temperature and average kinetic energy
what is the kelvin temperature of a substance directly proportional to
the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substnace
at any given temperature the particles of all substances have the same
average kinetic energy
the effects of temperature on particle motion in _____ and _____ are more complex than in _____
liquids & solids
the particles that make up liquids are in

they are free to

slide past one another
both ___ and ___ can flow
liquids & gases
the particles in a liquid are ______to each other
what are the attractive forces between the molecules of liquids called
intermolecular forces
the particles that make up a liquid _____ & _____ while they move from place to place
vibrate, spin
what must a particle have to escape into the gaseous state from liquid state
sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the intermolecuar forces that hold it together with the other particles
what do intermolecular forces reduce
the amount of space between the particles in a liquid
liquids are ____ dense than gas
what effect does increasing the pressure on a liquid have on it's volume
hardly any effect
liquids and solids are known as
condensed states of matter