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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Science
asking questions
3 types of science
life, earth, and physical science
physical science is ___
the study of matter and energy
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
energy
ability to do work
Chemistry is a ____ science
physical
Chemistry
study of composition, structure, and properties of matter, and the changes it undergoes
Branches of chemistry (6)
organic, inorganic, physical,analytical, biochemical, theoretical
chemical
any substance that has a definite composition
types of research
basic and applied
basic research
just for the gain of knowledge
Applied research
research carried out to solve a problem
Tech development
products to improve the quality of life..(ergonomics)
Scientific method
gerneral guidelines for gathering info
Steps of scientific method
observation, hypothesis, experiment, analyze data, draw conclusions, communicate results, make a scientific claim
scientific claim
law or theory
observation
using senses to gather info
hypothesis
testable question, prediction of what you think will happen
experiment
testing hypothesis, more observations
analyze results
analyze statistically
draw conclusions
what do results say, scientific journal
make a scientific claim
lots of evidence
controlled experiment
only one change/variable
control
standard for comparison, to relate results to
independent variables
the one manipulated by the person experimenting
dependent variable
changes due to experiment
Experiment must be_____
reproducible
theory
based on observations experiment results
law
rule of nature that sums up related observations and experiments, results to describe a pattern in nature.
pure water is always ___% hydrogen and _____% oxygen by mass
11.2%, 88.8%
Lanthanide/Anthanide Series
2 sets of elements below periodic table to save space
Malleable
hammered into thin sheets
ductile
drawn into wire
conductible
conducts heat and electricity
tensil strength
resists breaking when pulled
system
specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment of observation
mass
measure of amount of matter
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
atom
smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
element
pure substance made of only one kind of atom
compound
substance made from that atoms of 2 or more elements that are chemically bonded
extensive properties
depend on the amount of matter that is present
intensive properties
do not depend on the amount of matter that is present
physical property
characteristic that can be observed or measured w/o changing the identity of the substance
physical change
change in substance that doesn't involve a change in teh identity of the substance
change of state
physical change of substance from one state to another
solid
matter in a solid state has definite volue and definite shape
states of matter
solid, liquid, gas, plasma
liquid
matter that has a definite volume but indefinite shape
gas
matter has no definite shape or volume
plasma
high temp physical state of matter in which atoms lose their electrons
chemical property
relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform into different substances
chemical change
change in which one or more substances are converted into a different substance
chemical reaction
reaction in which one or more substances are converted into a different substance.
reactants
substance that react in chemical reaction
2 parts of chemical reaction
reactant, product
products
substances that are formed by chemical change
mixture
blend of 2 or more kinds of matter, each of which retains it's own identity and properties
homogeneous
mixtures uniform in composition
soltuions
homogeneous mixtures
heterogeneous
mixtures that aren't uniform throughout
pure substance
substanct that a fixed composition and differs from a mixture in that every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties and composition
Groups/Families
vertical columns of periodic table
periods
horizontal rows of elements of Periodic Table
metal
an element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity
nonmetal
an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
metalloid
element with some characteristics of metals and some of nonmetals
volume`
the amount of 3D space an object occupies.
examples of extensive properties
volume, mass, amount of energy
examples of intensive properties
melting pt., boiling pt., density, weight, ability to conduct electricity and heat
examples of physical properties
color, shabe, brittleness, texture, length, mass, volume, temp, odor, magnetism, melting/boiling pt
examples of physical changes
painting, melting, grinding, freezing, cutting, evaporating, breaking, boiling, condensing
solid to liquid
melting
liquid to solid
freezing
liquid to gas at boiling pt
vaporization
liquid to gas at temp below boiling pt
evaporation
solid to gas (directly)
sublimation
gas to liquid
concensation
all state changes are ______!
physical
examples of chemical property
electron arrangement, flammable, combustible, react with light (iodine)
examples of chemical change
rusting, tarnishing, combustion, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, foaming of antiacid, acid rain on limestone
law of conservation of mass
during chem reaction mass is neither created or destroyed; mass is equal before and after
law of conservation of energy
change form but can't be created or destroyed; total energy is equal before and after
example of law of conservation of mass
burning log: mass of ashes and gases equal the log
example of conservation of energy
sun/photosynthesis, light energy to chemical energy.
for every type of change ______is ALWAYS involved
energy
classification of matter
composition
substances
can't be reduced to more basic compound by physical means
matter is either an _______ or _____
element or compound
examples of elements
aluminum, gold
examples of compound
NaCl(salt), H2O(water), C6H12O6(sugar)
Example of mixture
kool-aid, salt water, trail mix, salt and pepper, cinnamon and sugar
example of homogenous
air, brass (Copper/Zinc), coffee
heterogeneous
italian dressing, fog, chex mix
alloy
2 metals combined
the study of matter best describes the science of
chemistry
chemistry is a ____ science
physical
technology is the
application of scientific knowledge to solve problems
an example of technology is the
use of a new antibiotic to fight an infection
T/F: Applied research is the study of how and why a specific reaction occurs
false.
T/F: Basic research is carried out to solve a specific problem
False. that is applied research
matter includes all of the following except:
a. air
b.light
c.smoke
d.water vapor
b. light
physical property may be investigated by
a. melting ice
b. letting milk sour
c.allowing silver to tarnish
d.burning wood
a. melting ice
chemical properties include...
changes that alter the identity of a substance
two features that distinguish matter are ...
mass and volume
one chemical property of matter is:
a. boiling pt
b.texture
c.reactivity
d.density
reactivity
example of physical property is:
a. mass
b. density.
c. color
d. boiling pt
a mass
which of the following is an intensive phys property?
volume
length
color
mas
color
chemical change occurs when:
ehtanol purified w/ distillation
salt deposites from evap sea water
leaf changes color
leaf changes color
melting of candle wax is physical change because
it produces no new substance
particals in a solid are packed ______ and are
tightly, constantly in motion
state of matter which a material is most likely to resist compression is
solid
state of matter definite shape and def volume
solid
state of matter no def shape no def volume
gaseous state
state of matter in which particls are rigidly held in fixed postion
solid
substances classified as fluid contains particles that...
may slide past each other
state of matter material has def volume no def shape
liquid
ordinarily particles of gas are
very far apart
list of pure substances include:
bread dough
vinegar
vitamin c
sea water
vitamin c
substances that are chemically bound together are
the elements that compose water