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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
electromagnetic spectrum
all the forms of electromagnetic radiation
wavelength
the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
frequency
is defined as the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second.
photoelectric effect
refers to the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
quantum
the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
photon
a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
ground state
the lowest energy state of an atom
excited state
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
line-emission spectrum
a series of specific wavelengths of emitted light created when the visible portion of light from excited atoms is shined through a prism
continuous spectrum
the emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle
Quantum theory
describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles
orbital
a 3-d region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
Quantum numbers
specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
principle quantum number
symbolized by n, indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron
angular momentum quantum number
symbolized by l, indicates the shape of the orbital
magnetic quantum number
symbolized by m, indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus (number of orbiatls)
spin quantum number
only 2 possible values (1/2, -1/2)-indicates the 2 fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
electron configuration
arrangement of electrons in an atom
Aufbau principle
an electon occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it
Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Hund's rule
orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electon before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin
highest occupied level
the electron-containing main energy level with the highest principle quantum number
inner-shell electrons
electrons that are not in the highest occupied energy level
noble gases
a Group 18 element (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon)
noble-gas configuration
an outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cases, by eight electrons