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22 Cards in this Set

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What are the three ways solid, liquid, or gas can be characterized?
Element, compound, or mixture
What is an element?
1 entity by itself with its own properties, can be 1 or more but must be same atom
What is a compound?
2 or more different elements
What is a mixture?
random mixing of either elements or compounds, or both not in a fixed ratio
What are the characteristics of compounds?
must be seperated by chemical means; properties are unique, ratio of elements are fixed
What is heterogenous?
need not see seperate boundaries in mixture
What are the characteristics of heterogenous mixtures?
visible with eye or with microscope; separated by filtration
What is homogenous?
composition and properties of mixture are uniformed
What are the characteristics of homogenous mixtures?
consists of ions and compounds; need powerful means to visualize; uniform phase; requires seperation by chemical means
What is the solvent?
Compound present in largest quantities
What is the solute?
compounds present is smaller quantities
What 3 things must happen when dissolving a solute?
1- solute seperates
2- solvent seperates
3- both mix
(requires energy)
What decides if reaction of endothermic or exothermic?
values of enthalpy (H) of solute + (H) of solvent + (H) of mix. endothermic= > 0, exothermic= < 0
What is enthalpy of solvation?
(H) of solvent and (H) of mix
(called H of hydration of solution is aqeous)
What are the steps of enthalpy of solvation?
1- H bonds are broken (endothermic)
2- Formation of Ion dipole (exothermic)
What does (H) of hydration depend upon?
charge density of ion, which is the ratio of charge to volume of ion. smaller the ion= greater hydration energy b/c more solvent surrounds ion
What is the solute?
compounds present is smaller quantities
What 3 things must happen when dissolving a solute?
1- solute seperates
2- solvent seperates
3- both mix
(requires energy)
What decides if reaction of endothermic or exothermic?
values of enthalpy (H) of solute + (H) of solvent + (H) of mix. endothermic= > 0, exothermic= < 0
What is enthalpy of solvation?
(H) of solvent and (H) of mix
(called H of hydration of solution is aqeous)
What are the steps of enthalpy of solvation?
1- H bonds are broken (endothermic)
2- Formation of Ion dipole (exothermic)
What does (H) of hydration depend upon?
charge density of ion, which is the ratio of charge to volume of ion. smaller the ion= greater hydration energy b/c more solvent surrounds ion