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53 Cards in this Set

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Chemistry
Study of MATTER and the changes that it undergoes.
Chemical
Any substance that has definite composition-- in terms of the atoms that compose it.
Basic Research
for the sake of increasing knowledge
("PURE CHEMISTRY")
Applied Research
to solve a problem
("APPLIED CHEMISTRY")F
Technological Development
procuding products that improve the quality of life;
innovating, inventing
Organic Chemistry
study of CARBON-containing compounds
Physical Chemistry
the study of properties and changes of matter in relation to ENERGY
Matter
has MASS and takes up SPACE
How can properties used to describe matter be classified?
EXTENSIVE and INTENSIVE property
Extensive property
depends on the AMOUNT of substance you have

Ex.
Mass, volume, weight
Intensive Propertiess
DO NOT depend on the amount of substance

Ex.
Color, consistency, texture, shape, density
Why do all samples of a substance have the same intensive properties?
becase they depend on teh type of substance, not the AMOUNT of it that is present
Three states of matteR?
Solid, liquid, gas
Plasma VS. Gas
Plasma particles are electrically charged
How can PHYSICAL CHANGES be classified?
reversible or irreversible
Reversible changes:
boil, freeze, melt, condense
Irreversible changes:
break, split, gring, cut, crush
How can mixtures be classified?
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous
Heterogeneous:
not uniform throughout the mixture

Ex.
Italian salad dressing
Homogeneous:
Uniform throughout the mixture

Ex. sugar water
How can mixtures be separated?
By physical processes
-filter, straining, distillation
Differences in PHYSICAL PROPERTIES can be used to separate mixtures
Ex..
Distillation:
components with lowest boiling point will come out first, etc...
What always happens during a CHEMICAL CHANGE
Chemical IDENTITY of the substance changes
Clues of a chemical change:
color change, release of heat and/or light (energy change), formation of a precipitate (solid stuff sinks to the bottom), evolution of gas (bubbles)
Words that signify a Chem. change
burn, rotm rust, oxidize, decompose, ferment, explode, corrode
CHEMICAL PROPERTY
Ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change
HOw are the mass of the REACTANTS and the mass of the PRODUCTS of a chemical reaction related?
MASS OF REACTANTS = MASS OF PRODUCTS
The law of conservation of mass:
matter can not be created nor destroyed
Physical property:
can be observed without changing the identity of the matter
Physical Change:
identity of matter does not change
-reversible
-irreversible
Elements
contain ONE type of matter
Compound
2 or more elements bound together
Mixture
2 or more pure substances mixed together; can be separated by physical means
Mass
measure of the amount of matter the object contains
Physical state of GAS
spaced relatively far apart
Physical state of LIQUID
close, but free to flow
Physical state of SOLID
packed tightly together, not able to flow
Another name for HOmogeneous
SOLUTION
Chemical property
ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change
-Chem properties can be observed only when a substance undergoes a chemical change
During a chemical change...
the composition of matter always changes
Element
simplist form of matter that has a unique set of properties
Compound
substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion
Compound vs. element
Compounds can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means, but elements cannot
Chemical symbols
chemists use to represent elements
Chemical formulas
used to represent compounds
Chemical symbol
first letter ALWAYS capital
Three broad classes of elements
Metals, nonmetals, meltalloids
Groups, families
columns
VERTICAL
Periods
rows
HORIZONTAL
Elements are the building blocks of compounds
elements are in simplest form
METALS
Shiny luster
conduct heat/electricity very well
malleable & ductile (bendalbe, shapable)
NONMETALS
brittle, break
do not conduct heat/elect.
soft or gaseous at room temperature
METALLOIDS
have properties of metals and nonmetals