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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Chemistry
the study of the composition of substances and the changes they undergo
Organic Chemistry
the study of essentially all substances containing carbon
Inorganic Chemistry
largely concerns substances without carbon
Analytical Chemistry
concerned primarily with the composition of substances
Physical Chemistry
is concerned with theories and experiments that describe the behavior of chemicals
Biochemistry
the study of chemistry of living organisms
Scientific Method
an approach to a solution of a scientific problem
Hypothesis
a proposed reason for what is observed
Experiment
a means of testing a hypothesis
Theory
a thoroughly tested explanation of why experiments give certain results
scientific law
a concise statement that summarizes the results of a broad spectrum of observations and experiments.
Matter
anything that takes up space and mas
Mass
the amount of matter that an object contains
Substance
a particular kind of matter that has a uniform and definite composition (table sugar)
Physical Property
a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s composition (color, solubility, mass, odor, hardness, density, boiling point)
Solid
matter that has a definite shape and volume
liquid
a form of matter that has a uniform and definite composition
gas
matter that takes both the shape and volume of its container
vapor
-a substance that, although in the gaseous state, is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature
Physical Change
alters a substance without changing its composition (boil, freeze, dissolve, melt)
Mixtures
consist of a physical blend of two or more substances (salad)
Heterogenous mixture
not uniform in composition (soil)
Homogenous mixture
uniform in its composition (seawater)
Solution
a homogenous mixture (sugar water)
Phase
any part of a system with uniform composition and properties
Distillation
when a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed again to a liquid
Elements
simplest forms of matter that can exist under normal laboratory conditions. They cannot be separated chemically (hydrogen)
Compounds
substances that can be separated into simpler substances only by chemical reaction. The different elements that make up a compound are always present in that compound in the same proportion.
Chemical reaction
one or more substances change into new substances
a. New: products
b. Old: reactants
The Law of Conservation of Mass
states that in any physical or chemical reaction, mass is neither created nor destroyed, it is conserved
Qualitative measurements
give results in a descriptive nonnumeric form (someone’s temperature by feeling their forehead)
Quantitative measurements
give results in a definite form, usually numbers (a persons fever via a thermometer)
Accuracy
how close a single measurement come to the actual dimension or true value of whatever is being measured
Precision
how close several measurements are to the same value