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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
90% of all living matter is composed of:
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
All macro molecules include:
1. carbohydrates
2. proteins
3. lipids
4. nucleic acids
Used by the cell to make nucleic acids
phosphorus
Used to bond protein structures
sulfur
composed of the proton and neutron particles of the atom
nucleus
In a H20 molecule where is the covalant bond?
within the molecule
In a H20 molecule where is the hydrogen bond?`
between the H20 molecule
When protons = neutrons the atom is:
uncharged
Do the number of protons ever change?
no
# of electrons in the valance shell is determined by:
column
The number of shells is determined by:
row
When there are more electrons than protons you have a ______________
- charge
charged element
ion
contains the same amount of electrons and protons
atom
Protons have a ___ charge
positive
Neutrons carry a ______ charge
neutral
Electrons carry a ___ charge
negative
1 proton = ______ electrons
2,000
also known as energy levels
electron shells
Elements found in the human body generally only have __
shells
4
results from the interaction of electrons
chemical bond
contributes to the characteristic of the molecule
bond strength
Bonds include:
1.
2.
3.
1. covalent
2. ionic
3. hydrogen
When you lose an electron you have a __ charge
positive
When you gain an electron you have a __ charge
negative
does not share electrons equally
polar
These are formed when atoms share electrons
covalent bonds
These bonds are strong and difficult to break
covalent
these are required to break bonds
enzymes
These are formed with the loss and gain of electrons between atoms.
ionic bonds
All organic compounds contain______ and at least one _________ atom.
carbon
hydrogen
Carbon can form bonds in these three different configurations:
ring structures
chain
branched chains
The bonded carbon structures are called the ___________
________________
carbon skeleton
O-H
alcohol
group name for R-O-H is:
hydroxyl
A central carbon double bonded to one oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl molecule
acid
O=C-OH
acid
group name of acids
carboxyl
often written as COOH
acid
One nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen molecules
amine
group name of amines:
amino
H-N-H
amine
When bound to a functional group, the carbon skeleton is indicated by:
R
One central carbon atom bonded to two carbon skeletons and double bonded to an oxygen
keton
O
ll
R-C-R
keton
One central carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen and single bonded to a hydrogen
aldehyde
O
ll
C-H
aldehyde
Bacterial cells are composed of 90% ____
water
All chemical reactions associated with life are based on ____
H20
These molecules are metabolized to produce energy
organic molecules
All amino acids have the following shared features:
1. carboxyl group
2. amino group
3. central carbon
4. side chain`
The building block of proteins are ______________
amino acids
Amino acids are attacted together through __________
dehydration synthesis
A _______ bond is formed between amino acids
peptide
Peptide bonds are ________
bonds.
covalent
What determines the protein?
the sequence of amino acids
What are the four levels of structure of a protein?
1. primary
2. secondary
3. tertiary
4. quaternary
What consists of an alpha helix or a beta pleated sheet?
secondary protein
Which structure is held together by H and disulfide bonding?
secondary protein structure
Protein chains are functional at what level?
tertiary
This structure is held together by H and disulfide bonding as well as covalent bonds and ionic bonds
tertiary proteins
What determines protein function and its ability to bind to its substrate?
shape
What consists of two or more tertiary structures bonded together and acting as a single protein?
quaternary
What is an example of a quaternary protein?
hemoglobin
What are proteins that act as a catalyst?
enzymes
What causes an acceleration of a chemical reaction without affecting the outcome of the reaction?
enzyme
Bonds break --protein ____
___ -- loses function -- ____________
loses shape
denaturation
Compounds containing primarily carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
carbohydrates
ratio of this atom is 1:2:1

1 C, 2 H, 1 O
carbohydrate
C6 H12 O6
glucose
What is the simplest carbohydrate?
monosaccharide
C5 H10 O5
basic carbohydrate formula for a pentose
What is the basic carbohydrate formula for a hexose?
C6 H12 O6
Common pentose
ribose & deoxyribose
common hexose
glucose & galactose & fructose
Monosaccharides can form disaccharides and polysaccharides through __________________
dehydration synthesis
What is the function of a carbohydrate?
1. give structure to the bacterial cell wall
2. act as a primary source of energy
glucose + glucose
maltose
glucose + fructose
sucrose
glucose + galactose
lactose
Starch is a ______________
polysaccharide
What are insoluble in water?
lipids
If hydrocarbon has no double bonds it is a _______________
saturated fat
Fatty acids are long ___________ chains
hydrocarbon
hetero means ______________
different
Lipids are ___________ in structure
heterogeneous
If hydrocarbon contains one or more double bonds it is ______________
unsaturated
one double bond =
monosaturated
H H H H H H H H
H C C C C C C C C H
H H H H H H H H
fatty acid
three fatty acids bound to glycerol =
triglyceride
structure is glycerol bound to two fatty acids and PO4 ion
phospholipid
simple lipids made up of four hydrocarbon rings
steroids
How do steroids differ from fats?
in structure
Why are steroids classified as a lipid?
due to their insolubility in water
Whose function is to make up the structure of the plasma membrane?
lipid
What can act as a primary source of energy as well as a carbohydrate?
lipid
nucleic acids are made of:
1. carbon
2. hydrogen
3. oxygen
4. nitrogen
5. phosphorus atoms
five carbon sugar
ribose or deoxyribose
deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA
a double stranded helical molecule
DNA
What carries the genetic code?
DNA
ex. of nitrogenous bases
1. purine
2. pyrimadine
ribonucleic acid
RNA
How does DNA differ from RNA?
in structure and function
five carbon sugar
ribose
ex. of purine
1. adenine
2. guanine
ex. of pyrimadine
1. cytosine
2. uracil
Is RNA single or double stranded?
single
What are the three types of RNA in protein synthesis?
1. messenger RNA (mRNA)
2. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
3. transter RNA (tRNA)
Is the growth in bacterial organisms static?
no
The population growth of bacteria follows a predictable sequence of what four readily distinguishable phases?
1. lag phase
2. log phase
3. stationary phase
4. death or decline phase
During what phase do cells increase in size but not in number?
lag phase
Which phase is called the "period of adjustment?
lag phase
During what phase are cells metabolically active?
lag phase
Which phase of bacterial growth is called the "period of growth"?
log phase
During which phase is the growth of bacteria exponential?
log phase
During which phase of bacterial growth at its maximum rate?
log phase
During which phase of bacterial growth are the cells nearly uniform?
log phase
During the log phase there is a _____________ of the population with each generation.
doubling
During which phase is cell death equal to cell division?
stationary phase
The time between cell divisions is called what?
generation time
This stage is a result of increased toxin and decreased nutrient:
stationary phase
During which period of bacterial growth is cell death greater than cell division?
death or decline phase
Which stage is due to the nearly complete depletion of nutrient?
death or decline phase