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105 Cards in this Set

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Alloy
mixture of a metal and one or more other elements, usually metals
Chemical change
a rearrangement of atoms/ molecules to produce one or more new substances with new properties
Compound
a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements linked by chemical bonds
Colloid
a dispersion of particles from 1 nm to 100nm in at least one dimension in a continuous medium
Combustion
burning, or reaction with oxygen producing heat & usually light
Density
mass per unit
Element
a substance whose atoms all have the same number of protons in the nucleus
Gas
the state of matter in which particles are far apart & moving randomly
Heterogeneous
composed of more than one phase
Homogeneous
uniform throughout
Liquid
the state of matter characterized by its constituent particles appearing to vibrate about moving points
Mixture
a material consisting of two or more substances
Physical Change
a change in which the same substance is present before and after the change
Solid
the state of matter characterized by particles that appear to vibrate about fixed points
Solution
a homogeneous mixture composed of solute and solvent
Suspension
a mixture w/ particles large enough to settle to the bottom ( a dispertion of particles in a continuous medium)
Tyndall Effect ***
the scattering of light by colloidal particles ( laser thru a solution you can't see the beam in the beaker)
Acid
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in water solutions: a proton donor
Alkane
an aliphatic hydrocarbon having only single carbon-carbon bonds (rings)
Anion
a negative ion
Binary Ionic Compound
a compound composed of only two elements
Avegadro's Number
the # of objects in a mole
Alpha Particles
a helium nucleus (out of orbit -> radioactivity)
Atom
the smallest particle of an element
Atomic Mass
the mass of an atom in atomic mass units; the average mass of the atoms of an element
Atomic Number
# of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Bond
the force holding atoms together in a compound or molecule
Bohr
planetary atom model
Actinide Series
14 elements beginning w/ actinium where the highest energy electrons are in the 5f sublevel
Atomic Radius
the distance from the center of an atom to the 90% probability surface of the electron cloud
Alkali Metal
an element in group 1 (IA)
Alkaline Earth Metal
an element in group 2 (IIA)
Cation
a positive ion
Catalyst
a substance that speeds a chemical reaction w/o being permanently changed itself
Chemical Reaction
a reaction in which one or more substances are changed into one or more new substances
Coefficient
a numeral representing the number of formula units of the substance
Chemical Formula
the notation using symbols and numerals to represent the composition of substances
Covalent Bond
a bond characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between 2 atoms
Decomposition
a reaction in which a compound breaks into two or more simpler substances

AB-> A + B
Double Displacement
a chemical reaction in which the positive part of one compound combines with the negative part of another compound & vice versa
AB+CD -> AD + CB
Dissociation
the seperation of ions in a solution (breaking up)
Dalton
in a mixture of gases, the total presure of the mixture is the sum of the partial presures of each component gas
Excess Reactant
reactant remaining when all of some other reactant has been consumed
Electron
an elementary particle w/ unit negative charge
Electron Configuration
a description of the arrangement of the electrons in an atom
Energy Level
a specific energy or group of energies that may be possessed by electrons in an atom
Electronegativity
the relative attraction of an atom for a shared pair of electrons
Family/Group
the elements composing a vertical column of the periodic table
Ground State
the state of lowest energy of a system
Hydrocarbon
compound containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon
Halogen
an element in group 17 (VIIA)
Ionization Energy
the energy required to remove an electron from an atom
Inorganic
a substance that is not a hydrocarbon or a derivative of a hydrocarbon
Ion
an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons
Ionic Bond
the electrostatic attraction betweeen ions of opposite charge
Isotope
one of two or more atoms having the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Limiting Reactant
the reactant that is consumed completely in a chemical reaction
Lanthanide Series
14 elements beginning with lanthanum where the highest energy electrons are in the 4f sublevel
Molar Mass
the mass in grams of one mole of a substance
Mole
the Avegadro constant number of objects
Melting Point
the temperature at which the vapor pressures of the solid & liquid phases of a substance are equal
Noble Gas
an element in group 18 (VIIIA)
Molecule
a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
Neutron
a neutral subatomic particle (a hadron)
Organic
pertaining to carbon compounds
Percent Composition
the mass of an element in a compound divided by the mass of the compound * 100
Period
a horizontal row of the periodic table
Periodic Law
the properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic numbers
Polyatomic Ion
a group of atoms covalently bonded but possessing an overall charge
Precipitate
a solid, produced by a reaction, that separates from a solution
Product
a substance produced as the result of a chemical change
Orbital
the space that can be occupied by o,1 or 2 electrons with the same energy level, energy sublevel, and spacial orientation
Photon
quantum of radiant energy
Proton
positive nucleon
Reactant
a starting substance in a chemical reaction
Rutherford
the planetary atom model (Bohr)
Solute
the substance present in lesser quantity in a solution
Solvent
the substance present in the greater amount in a solution
Synthesis
the formation of a compound from two or more substances
Theory
an explanation of a phenomenon
Transition Metal
an element whose highest energy electron is a d sublevel
Democritus
1st to consider the atom
Thompson
atoms made of electrons embedded in a positive cloud
Valence Electrons
electrons in the outer shell of an atom
Plum Pudding Model
thompson, atoms made of electrons embedded in a positive cloud
Metallic Character
metal, solid, cation, good conductors, high melting points
Oxidation Number
nuclear charge
Emission Spectrum
visible light that is absorbed or emitted from an excited atom, unique for each element, emitted when return from excited to ground state
Activity Series
lists metals in order of potential (Single displacement)
Thermal Conductivity
how easily something allows electric current to pass through it ( good = allow electrons to pass freely through it) (band called insulators)
Conservation of Mass
matter is always conserved , cant b created or destroyed. only changes in form
Soluble/insoluble
solute can/can't be dissolved
Flammable
almost all organic compounds are _________
Pure Substances
homogeneous materials, same composition
Properties
extensive: depend on amount of matter (volume)
intensive: don't depend on amount of matter (density)
Ionic Bond
the electrostatic force that holds two ions together due to their differing charges
Covalent Compound
most are formed between atoms of nonmetals, low melting points, do not conduc electricity, brittle
Monatomic Ion
an ion made of on atom
Single Displacement
one element displaces another in a compound
Mole Ratio
compares moles of solute to moles of solution
Cathode Ray Tube
Thomson, cathode ( negative electrode) revealed rays in tube beginning at cathode and travel toward anode
Excited State
when energy gets added to an atom
Gold Foil Experiment
Rutherford, concluded atom is mostly empty space, few particles deflected at large angles -> very small "core" to the atom, core contains all the positive charge and almost all of the mass (nucleus)
Mendeleev
similar properties thru a period (vary in length) , left blanks for elements yet to be discovered
Moseley
protons, from atomic mass to atomic #