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547 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
distinguishing factor of transition metals
incompletely filled d subshells/ give rise to ions w/incompletely filled d subshells
why are most transition metals inert towards acids/ react slowly w/them
protective layer of oxide
complex ion
ion containing central metal cation bonded to one or more molecules/ions
coordination cmpd
consists of a complex ion and counter ions
molecules/ ions that surround metal in complex ion
coordination number
number of donor atoms that surround the central metal atom in complex ion
how are ligands classified and what are the classification
on number of donor atoms present. ligands classified as monodentate (1 donor aton), bidentate (2 donor atoms) or polydentate (many donor atoms)
what does a ligand have to have
at least one unshared pair of valence electrons
describe interaction of ligand and metal atom in terms of lewis acid/ base
ligands play role of lewis bases because they are capable of donating electrons. metals play role of lewis acids because they can accept electrons
chelating agents
have ability to hold metal cation like a claw
cmpds that are made up of same types and numbers of atoms bonded together in same sequence but with different spatial arrangements
geometric isomers
stereoisomers that cannot be interconverted without breaking a chemical bond
optical isomers
non- superimposable images
coordination number of 2, what si the structure
coordiantion number of 4, what is the strucutre
tetrahedral/ square planar
coordination number of 6, what si hte strucutre
waht does crystal field theory account for
color and magnetic properties of coordination compounds
what are the 2 types of electrostatic interactions in a complex ion
attraction btw positive metal ion and the negatively charged ligand, or negatively charged end of polar ligand. electrostatic repulsion btw lone pairs on ligands and the electrons in the d orbitals of the metals
crystal field splitting
energy difference between two sets of d orbitals in a metal atom when ligands are present
what are these energy differences
higher level d orbitals- dx2- y2 and dz2
have same energy
lower level d orbitals- dxy, dyz, and dxz
have same energy
what does the magnitude of this change depend on
metal and nature of ligands
waht does it have an effect on
color and magnetic properties of complex ions
in what terms does crystal field theory explain bonding in complex ion
in terms of electrostatic forces
when does an object appear green
if it abosrbs all light but reflects the green component, or if it reflects all colors except for red which is its complementary color
spectrochemical series
list of ligands arranged in increasing order of their abilities to split hte d orbital energy levels
strong field ligands
cause large splitting of the d orbital energy levels
weak field ligands
split d orbitals to a lesser extent
if no lone pairs, and arrangement of electron pairs is linear what is hte molecualr geo
if no lone pairs and arrangement of electron pairs is linear then molecular geo is
trigonal planar
if no lone pairs and arrangement of electron pairs is tetrahedral then molecular geo is
if no lone pairs and arrangement of electron pairs is trigonal bipyramidal then moleclar geo is
if arrangement of electron pairs is octahedral then what is molecular geo
if trigoinal planar, and one is a lone pair, then what is geo
if tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs and one is a lone pair waht is geo
trigonal pyramidal
tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs and 2 are lone pairs what is geo
if arrangement of electron pairs is trigonal bipyramidal (5) and one is a lone pair, what is geo
if arrangement is trigonal bipyramidal and 2 are lone pairs what is geo
t shaped
if arrangement is trigonal bipyramidal and there are 3 lone pairs, what is geo
if arrangement is octahedral and there is one lone pair what is geo
square pyramidal
if arrangement is octahedral and there are 2 lone pairs what is geo
square planar
linear hybrid orbitals
trigonal planar hybrids
hybridization of tetrahedral
hybridization of trigonal bipyramidal
hybridization ofoctahedral
order for everything but o and f with MO theory
1s2 (sigma), 1s2(sigma) *, 2s2 (sigma), 2s2(sigma) *, pi 2py/ pi 2pz, sigma 2px, pi* 2py/ pi* 2pz, sigma* 2px
order for o and f
1s2 (sigma), 1s2 (sigma)*, 2s2 (sigma) 2s2 (sigma) *, sigma 2px, pi 2py/ pi 2pz, pi 2py*/ pi 2pz*, sigma 2px*
colligative properties
properties that depend only on number of solute particles and not on nture of solute particles
waht is most abundant element in universe
is h2 found in our atmosphere
no, too lightweight
how can hydrogen gas be prepared in the lab
by reacting zinc w/hcl
when are ionic hydrides formed
when molecular hydrogen combines with any alkali metal or alkaline earth metal
covalent hydrides
hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to atom of another element
interstitial hydrides
when ratio of hydrogen atoms to metal atoms of some cmpds is not a constant
how does hydrogen resemble the alkali metals, the halogens
alkali metals- can be oxidized to H+, and it resembles the halogens bc it froms hydride ion
how is hydrogen produced industriallu
synthesis of nh3, or steam is passd over a bed of red hot coke: C + water yields CO and H2
two or more forms of element that differ significantly in physical and chemical properties
waht are 2 allotropes of carbon
diamond and graphite
what carbon forms when combining with metals- C2 with a -2 charge
contain CN-
bronsted acid
substance capable of donating a prot
bronsted base
substance capable of accepting a prot
lewis acid
substance capable of accpeting electron pair
lewis base
substance capable of donating an electron pair
what percent of our air is nitrogen
how is ammonia prepared industrially
haber process
most abundant element of earth's crust
how can oxygen be made in lab
electrolyzing h20
how can oxyugen be made indust
fractional distillation of liquified air
3 types of oxides that oxygen forms
02-, peroxide (02 2- ion), and superoxide (02-)
are these oxides bronsted acids or bases
how does the acidic character of oxides change acorss periodic table
acidic character increases from left to right
how does basicity of oxides increase
as we move down a group
how is sulfur readily avaiblale even tho it is not abundant
occurs naturally in elemental form in earth
how is sulfur extracted
frasch process
describe frasch proces
superheated water- high pressurized to keep from boiling is pumped down to melt sulfur and slfur rises
what is worlds most important industrial chem
sulfuric acid
nuclear transmutation
results from bombardment of nuclei by neutrons, protons or other nuclei
symbol for prot
1 H
0 n
0 or 0
-1 e -1 B
0 or 0
+1 e +1B
alpha particle
4 or 4
2 He 2 e
diff btw nuclear and chem rxn
chem: atoms are rerranged by breaking/ forming of chemical bonds
only electrons in atomic or molecular orbitals are involved in this
reactions are accompanied by absorption or release of small amts of energy
rates of rxn are influenced by temp, pressure, conc and catalysts
nuclear rxn:
elements are converted from one to another
prot, neut, electrosn and other elementary particles involved,
rxn release lots of energy
rates of rxn not affected by temp pressure or catalysts
nuclear binding energy
energy required to break up nucleus into component prot and neutrons
why do we find nuclear bidnign energy per nucleon
in ocmparing stability of 2 nuclei, need to note that they have diff numbers of nucleons
prot and neutrons in nucleus
radioactive decay series
sequence of nuclear reacrtion that result in formation of stable isotope
what is radioactive decay dating based on
c14, u238, k40
how does nuclear transmutation differ from radioactive decay
nuclear transmutation brought on by collision of 2 particles
nuclear fission
heavy nuclei divides into smaller nuclei of intermediate mass and one or more neutrons
nuclear chain rxn
self sustaining seq of nuclear fission rxn
how do nuclear chain rxn work
neutrons gen during initial stages of fission can induce fission in other u 238 nuclei
critical mass
minimum mass of fissionable material required to generate self sustaining nuelcear chain rxn
how does the atomic bomb work
critical mass is formed by tnt which forces fissionalbe sections together, neutrosn at center trigger the nuclear chain rxn
what are nuclear reactors
generation of electricity using heat from controlled chain rxn
waht is diff btw atom bomb and nuclear reactor
nulcear reactor is controleld all time
nuclear fusion
combining of small elements into larger ones
what is drawback to using nuclear fusion
hfinding a way to hold nuclei together long enuf and at correct temp.
waht are benefitts to nuclear fusion
little waste, cheap
gaseous mix of pos ions and electrosn, bc nuclear fusion is so hot that atoms striped of electrosn
waht are hydrogen bombs made of
lithium deuteride
what are the key conditions for natural selection
1) not all indiv survive and reproduce
2) heritable variation in pop
3) this heritable variation affects survival
what are the key ideas for evolution
natural selection
particular strucutre, physiological process, or behavior that makes organism better able to survive and reproduce, also evolutionary process that leads to development/ persistance of trait
any gradual change
what is hardy weinberg equilibrium
predicts phenotypic freq in absence of evolutionary forces. tells whether or not evol is occurring
what conditions must be met for pop to be at hardy weinberg equil
random mating, large pop size, no migration btw pop, no mutation, natural selection dn affect alleles under consideration
what are forces that cause evol change
mutation (rates low, random, unlikely to explain large departures from HW), migration (gene flow), selection, drift (greatest in small pop), nonrandom mating
what are types of selection
directional, stabilizing, disruptive, sexual selection
what are reasons that organisms not perfectly adapted
pleiotropy, effects of all those genetic forces (lack of variation, chance effects of drift, phylogenetic constraint, fitness is relative
determination of more than one character by a gene
how is genetic variation maintained in face of selection
diploidy, recombination, heterozygote adv, frequency dep selection
frequency dep selection
selection that changes in intensity with properties of indiv in pop having trait
morphological species concept
classified by appearance
biological species concept
species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural pop which are reproductively isolated from other groups
what mech promote speciation
selection, founder effect, disruptive selection, assortative mating
founder effect
small group of founding indiv has only incomplete representation of gene pool of parent pop
what mech inhibit
gene flow, drift (removes variation), stabilizing selection,
what are mech of speciationq
allopatric, parapatric, sympatric
what is dominant mode of speciation
waht kind of speciation is founder effect
what does a physical barrier's efffectiveness at preventing gene flow depend on
size and mobility of species in question
what kind of speciation occurs w/o physical barriers
sympatric speciation
production w/in indiv of duplicate sets of chrom
how can polyploidy happen
either from chrom duplication in single species (autopolyploidy) or from combining of chrom (allopolyploidy)
how does autopolyploidy happen
cells that were normally diploid accidentally duplicate chrom resulting in tetraploid
do tetraploid indiv produce viable offspring
not if it mates w/a diploid indiv but it can do so if it self- fert or mates w/another offspring
how does alloploidy happen
wen indiv of 2 diff but closely related species interbreed/ hybridize
where does this sympatric speciaiton usually happen
does geograpic isolation always lead to reproductive incompatibility
prezygotic barriers
spatial isolation, temporal, mechanical, gametic, behavioral
spatial isolation
indiv may never come into contact during mating periods reproductively isolated by location
temporal isolation
if mating periods of 2 species dn overlap, reproductively isolated by time
diff in sizes/ shape sof reproductive organs
gametic isolation
sperm of one species not attached to egg of another species bc eggs dn release appropriate chem or sperm unable to penetrate egg bc 2 gametes chem. incompatible
indiv of species may reject/ not recognize indiv of other species as mating partners
postzygotic barriers operate when
after fert
what are 3
hybrid zygote abnormality hybrid infertility, low hybrid viability
hybrid zygote abnormality
fail to mature normally, die during dev. or early on
hybrid infert
hybrids may mature normally but be infertile
low hybrid viability
may survive less well
strengthening of prezygotic barriers
if hybrid offspring survive poorly, more effective prezygotic barriers will evolve bc indiv will leave fewer surviving offsprings than indiv that only mate w/in population
what factors infleucence speciation rates
species richness, dispersal rates, ecological specialization, population bottlenecks, types of pollination, sexual selection of environ change
species richness
larger # of species, larger # of opportunities for new species to form
dispersal rates
indiv with poor dispersal rates unlikely to establish new population by dispersing across barriers
ecological speciation
pop of speccies restricted to habitat types that are patchy, more likely to diverge than pop that occupys continuous habitats
population bottlenecks
change in gene pools that occur when population passes thru bottleneck, may result in new adaptations
sexual selection
animals w/complex behavior form new species at high rate bc make sohpistcated discriminations among mating partners
evolutionary radiation
high speciation rates
scientific study of diverse organisms
theory and practice of classifying organisms
hypothesis proposed by systematists that describes history of descent of a group of organisms from common ancestor
phylogenetic tree
way of portraying that histoey in it
how is a lineage represented
branching tree in which each node(split) represents speciation event
homologous traits
features shared by two or more spcies that have been inherited by their common ancestor
describe homologous traits
any heritable traits- anatomical structures, behavior patterms and DNA seq
derived trait
trait that differs from ancestral and derived form
why is it difficult to determine how traits have changedd
convergent and divergent evolution
convergent evolution
indep evolved traits subjected to similar selective pressures may become superfficially similar
ex of convergent evolution
wings of bats and birds
evolutionary reversal
character may revert from derived state back to ancestral state
ex of evolutionary reversal
frogs lack teeth in lower jaw but ancestor of frogs did have such teeth
convergent evolution and evolutionary reversals generate traits that are similar for some other reason than inheritance
why is distinguishing derived traits from ancestral hard
traits become so dissimilar that ancestral states are unrecognizable
lineage related to ingroup but branched off from ingroup b4 its base on evolutionary tree
lineage of interest
waht is 1st step in reconstructing phylogeny
select group of organisms whose phylogeny is to be reconstructed- finding ingroup and outgroup
waht are four ways phylogenies can be reconstructed
morphology, early dev stages of orrganisms, fossils, molecular traits
how can molecular traits be used to reconstruct phylogenies
prot primary strucutre, dna base seq
parsimony principle
one should prefer hypothesis that is capbable of explainign data in simplest way
binomial nomenclature
identifying species, other genus it belongs to
group of closely related species
describe taxonomic groupings
kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, species
monophyletic group/ clade
contains all descendants of particular ancestor and no other organisms
4.5 bya
orgin of earth
3.8 bya
orgin of life
2.6 bya
eukaryotes evolve
550- 600 mya
1st multicellular organisms
543 mya
cambrian explosion begins
when do most body plans appear
cambrian explosion
443 mya
colonization of land
350 mya
diversification of plants and insencts
250 mya
flowering plants, mammals appear, continents separate
6 mya
evolution of homininds
490 mya (much of cambrian fauna)
350 mya
250 mya (96% of all species)
65 mya (dino)
what percent of species that have ever lived are extinct
waht are 2 major components of darwins theory
species not immutable- change over time, agent is natural selectionq
natural selection
differential contribution to offspring to next gen. by various genetic types beloning to same pop
group of indiv of single species that live in particular geographic area at same time
waht are key conditions for natural selection
not all indiv survive and reproduce, heritable variation in pop, heritable variation affects survival nad reproductin
refers to processes by which adaptative traits are acquired- evol mech which produce them, 2nd refers to traits that enhance survival/ reproductive sucess of bearers
features of phenotype
specific form of character
heritable trait
characterisitc of organism that is partly determined by genes
diff forms of gene
change in genotypic freq w/time
what does HW equilibrium predict
phenotypic freq in absence of evol forces
waht conditions have to hold
random mating, large pop size, no migration btw pop, no mutation, nat selection dn affect alleles under consideration
what does HW show
whether evol is occuring
final message of HW
allele freq remains same from gen to gen unless some agent acts to change
what are evol forces
change in genetic strucute of pop
waht do members of all 3 domains have in common
conduct glycolysis, replicate dna semiconservatively, have dna that encodes polypep and produce these by transcription/ translation, have same genetic code, have plasma membrane and ribosomes
which are more closely related to eukaryotes, archaea or eubact
if treated prokayotes as one major kingdom, waht kind of group would it be
paraphyletic- wn include all descendants of common ancestor
whjat are shapes of prokaryotes
spherical- coccus
rod shaped- bacillus
waht do prokaryotes lack
nuclei, organelles, cytoskeleton
divide by
most common locomotion
describe genome of prokaryote
describe characteristic of bact
earliest form of life, most abundant form of life
waht are bact cell walls made of
what is diff btw bact and archaea
archaea dn have peptidoglycan in cell walls
gram pos bact color
blue/ purple
gram neg
waht does gram stain correlate with
strucutre of cell wall
gram pos bact have
thick layer outside plasma membrane
gram neg
1/5 as much peptidoglycan and is surrounded by 2nd outer membrane
obligate aneerobes
can only live by anaerobic metabolism
facultative anaerobes
can shift btw anaerobic and aerobic
obligate aerobes
cn survive w/o o2
perform photosyn. use light
use light as energy source but must obtain carbon from organic cmpds made by other organismsq
obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances and use some of that energy to fix c02
obtain both energy and carbon from one or more complex organic cmpds
nitrogen fixers
convert n2 into a chemical form usuable by nitrogen fixers themselves
bact that releases n2
what do they use
oxidized inorganic ions like nitrate, nitrite or sulfates as electron acceptors
nh3 is oxidized to nitrate in soil and
derive energy from reduced organic substances
where do archaea usuall live
extremes such as salt, low 02 conc, high temp or high/ low pH
waht are 2 characterisitcs shared by all archaea
absence of peptidoglycan in cell walls and presence of lipids of distinctive composition in cell membbranes- branched lipids
where are archaea descended from
common ancestor of eukaryoptes
cause many human diseases, nitrogen fixers, e coli
blue green, produce 02 in early atmosphere, source of eukaryotic chloroplast
describe protists
not a clade- polyphyletic group, anything that is not animal, plant or fungi
waht were steps in evolution of eukaryotic cell
loss of cell wall, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, endosymbiosis
waht are good things about losing cell wall
more surface area made bc membrane folds, phagocytosis
what does cytoskeleton allow
cell can change in shape and move stuff around
mitochondria and chloroplast
high conc of 02 toxic, ingested prokaryotes and able to diarm h202
high surface area
heterotrophs (paramecium)
heterotrophs (euglena)
dinoflagellates, red green and brown
cellular slime mold
also algae
waht is step in evolution toward multicellularity
colonial protistans
what are big picture themes in evol of multicellularity
greater mobility, cephalization, greater specialization of body parts
monophylatic clade, group of multicellular heterotrophs that share similar rRNA, hox genes, cell- cell junctions, shared ECm prot
what are cell to cell junctions important to
multicelllular function
waht are order of traits going from basal to most derived
symmetry, gut, number of germ cell layers, body cavity, skeleton, segmentation
what animals have no symmetry
radial symmetry
one main axis- starfish, makes them move slowly
bilateral symmetry allows for
rapid movement
how are bilaterally symmetrical organisms divided
left to right
waht is bilateral symmetry correlated w/
concentration of sensory organs and nervous tissue in head at anterior of animal
body cavity
fluid filled space
what does body cavity lie btw
endoderm and ectoderm
waht do acoelomates lack
enclosed body cavity
have body cavity called pseudocoel- a liquid filled space where internal organs are suspended
have a coelom- body cavity that dev w/in mesoderm
hydrostatic skeleton
fluid filled body cavities of simple animals
describve how a coelomate is better
more control over movement of fluids in body cavity then pseudocoeolomates, compartmentalizes allows for more complexity bc more things can happen at once
ex of acoelomate
platyhelminthe- no body cavity
body cavity w/one layer of muscle- roundworm
true body cavity- 2 layers muscle
waht does the body cavity have a strong influence on
way it moves
decribe control for pseudocolelmostates
control over body shape is crude bc pseudocoel has musciles only on outside, no inner layer of muscle surrounding organs
what do fluid filled body cavities of simple animals function as
hydrostatic skeleton
what do animals need for this
waht are 2 other types of skeletons
complex (ext) complex (int)
incomplete gut
one end
complete gut
2 ends
wahtr are benefits of segmentatnio
muscles in each individual segment cannot change indep of other segments
what are ex of unsegmented
ribbon worms
benefit of having mutliple cell layerts
more complex??
waht are 3 things which add to greater mobility
skeleton, coelom, segmentation
skeleton- attachment for muscles, key to land colonization bc no hydrostatic skeleton when out of h20
coelom- additional muscle layers, breaks stuff into parts
specialization of different segments, can move indep appendages
greater cephalization leads to
bilateral symmetry, segmentation (specializaation)
what does greater specialization lead to
bilateral symmetry, coelom(allocation of body cavity to other functions besdies gut) segmentation
no true tisses
describe sponge
no true tissue, sessile, mostly marine, no gut
true tissue
2 germ layers (ectoderm and endoderm)
jellyfish, anemone, coral
waht are new traits that evolved w/cnidaria
true tissue (metazoam), dipoblastic (2 germ layer- endo and ecto), blind gut (one way) radial symmetry
waht are two stages of chidaria
polyp and medusa
comb jellies
new trait that arose w/cteonophres
complete gut
describe ctenophores
marine predators, mostly opean ocean
3 germ layers (ecto, endo and meso)
what arises with this tripoblasty
bilateral sytmmetry
what is diff btw deuterostomes and protostomes
differ developmentally
ex of acoelomate
describe acoelomate
no organs/ transport sys, flattened dorsally, many parasitic, simple anterior brain, eyes- chemoreceptors
nematods and rotifers
body cavity
3 major groups
worms, mollusccs, molting animals
describe worms
bilaterally symmetrical, legless, softbbodied, and at least several times longer than wide
describe skeleton of molluscs
types of animals that have external skeleton
clams, snails, squids, octopi
molting animals
arthropods (segmented w/ ext skeleton)
int skeletons
why is it hard to be a plant on land
drying out, support, nutrients, sessile
waht are adaptiations to plants going to landq
cuticle and stomata, reproductive structures that resist desiccation, mutualistic association w/fungi, roots and leaves, indeterminate growth, vascular tissue
what are reproductive structures that resist desiccation
gametangia, embryos, spore walls
what are 2 major groups
plants and green algae, and just platns
waht are shared/ derived traits of plants/ green algae
chlorophyll a,b as photosyn pigments, starch as storage molecule, cellulose in cell walls
how are plants distinct from green algae
dev from embryos protected by tissues of parent- embryophytes.
waht do all plants possess
alternation of generation
waxy covering that retards desiccation
cases that enclose plant gametes and prevent them from drying out
waht do all plants posses
alternation of gen
waxy covering that retards desiccation
young sporophytes contained w/in protective strucutre
afford protection against mutagenic UV rays that bathe terrestiral envion
spore walls
contains polymer tht protects spore from dessication
mutualistic association with fungus
promotes nutrient uptake ffrom soil
describe nontracheophytes
lack true vasc tissue (phloem, xylem), no roots/ leaves, have rhizoids, obtain h20 by diff, aquatic sperm, visible life history- gametophyte (haploid) moist habitat
why are they so short
lack efficient sys for conducting h20 and minerals from soil to distant parts of body
why do they grow in moist habitat
thin cuticle, dep on h20 for sperm
which are most ancient
first stomata
describe relation btw gametophyte and sporophyte in nontrach
gametophyte of nontracheophytes is photosynthetic and nutritionally indep. sporophyte might be photosyn but is nutritionally dep on gametophyte and attached to it
simple vascular sys- cell called hydroid dies and leaves tiny channel thru which h20 can travel
how do sporophyte of mosses and tracheophytes grow
by apical cell division
apical cell div.
region at growing tip which provides organized pattern of cell div. elongation and differentiation
what has orgin of indeterminate growth
what is indetermiante growth
growth w/o set limit
what is key shared trait of tracheophytes
tracheids- true vascular tissue
what is most visible part of life cycle for tracheophytes
what were adv of tracheid tissue
provided path for long dist transport of h20 and mineral nutrients from source to sink
non seed plants
club mosses, horsetails, ferns
do non seed plants have roots/leaves
what are seed plants
gymnosperms, angiosperms
strasberger's exp
sawed thru trunk of tree at base and plunged cut end itno a bucket containing poison. as soln rose thru trunk- evident from progressive death of bark higher adn higher up. when soln reached leaves, died and movement of soln stopped
living, pumping cells not responsible for upward movement of soln bc soln kileld all living cells with which it came into contact
also showed that leaves were a crucial role in transport bc as logn as they were alive, soln moved up, when leaves died, movement stopped\
therefore, showed that movement is not caused by roots bc trunk sep from roots
function of xylem
transports h20, nutrients contains tracheids and maybe vessel elements, woody- lined by lignin, cells die b4 tissue functional (apoptosis), pits facilitate movement
distinctive conducting supporting cell found in xylem of most vascular plants, tapering ends and walls that are pitted bu not perforated
vessel elements
non living h20 conducting cells w/perforated end walls
principla non carb component of wood, polymer that bidns cellulose fibrils in some plant cell walls
recessed cavities in cell walls of a plant, vascular element where only primary cell wall is present. facilitates movement of sap btw cells
transports carbs, nutrients
phloem made of
sieve tube elements/ companion cells
sieve tube elements
column of specialized cells found in phloem specialized to conduct organic matter from surces to sinks
what supports sieve tube elements
companion cells
what are sieve plates
enlarged plasmodesmata
what is solute potential
measure of effect of dissolved soultes on osmotic behavior of soln
the ______ the concentration of solute in soln, the more ______ solute potential, an _____ tendency of h20 to move into it from another soln of ______ solute conc
greater, neg, greater, lower
pressure potential
h20 moves to areas of lower pressure
what does water potential equal
solute + pressure potential
where does h20 move to
regions of lower( more neg) potential
how does water get from roots to leaves
negative water potential in roots relative to soil, h20diffuses into roots
conc of h20 vapor in atmosphere lower than leaf bc of difference h20 diffuses from intercellular spaces of leaf thru openings called stomata to outside air
waht does this evapotranspiration result from
cohesion- h20 sticks
what are key elements of h2o transport in xylem
transpiration- evaporation of h20 from leaves
tension- in xylem sap resulting from transpiration
cohesion- xylem sap from leaves to roots
waht does h20 flow create
negative solute potential
bulk flow
movement of soln due to diff in pressure potential btw 2 parts of plant
what is tradeoff
h20 loss vs maxmizing photosyn
waht do guard cells regulate
what is compromise btw carbon adn h20
what is function of stomata
since cuticle minimizes h20 loss but dn let c02 in, stomata lets c02 in
waht is lost when stomata are open
when do plants open stomata
when light is sufficient enuf to maintain photosyn
when do stomata close
night, no c02 is needed and h20 is conserved
what happens if too much h20 is lost during day
stomata close
what does light do
opens stomata
waht does stomata openning admit
c02 for photosyn
what is another cue for stomata to open
level of c02in intracellular space
what does low level favor
opening of stomata which allows more c02
what happens when c02 level is low and sun is shining and h20 potential of mesophyll is too neg (dehydrated)
consumes 02 and releases c02
what does photoresp do
lowers rate of c02 fixation
functions as carboxylase as well as oxygenase adds c02 to RuBp, adds 02 to RuBp
what happesn when RuBp reacts w/02
cn react w/c02
what does this reduce
overall c02 converted to carbs and therefore limits plant growth
what kind of plants can bypass photoresp
how do they do this
c4 plants keep ratio of 02 to c02 around rubisco high so that rubisco acts as carboxylase
waht kind of carbon cmpd do they make
what do c4 plants do
normal calvvin benson cycle but have additional early rxn that fixes c02 w/o losing carbon to photoresp, this greatle increases phtotsyn yield
when can this functionq
even at low levels of c02 and high temp
waht are the 2 diff enzymes for co2 fixation
one enzyme present in cytosol of mesophyll cells which fixes c02 to 3c pep which produces 4c product oxoacetate
waht are 2 adv of pep carboxylase
no oxygenase activity fixes c02 at low level
waht is end result
even on hot day when stomata closed, conc of c02 is low and conc of 02 is high
where is c02 moved to
bundle sheath cells where there is a high c02 level when when stomata are closed
what plants do cam
grasses, crops, corn
what other plants use PEP carboxylase
what is diff about cam plants than c4
process of initial c02 fixation and calvin benson cycle separate
when are stomata open
night instead of day
where is c02 stored and by what
PEP carboxylase
when is c03 released
during day
when is c03 released
during day
when is c03 released
during day
waht are tradeoffs
c4, cam more expensive and outcompeted by c3 at low moisture/temp
c4 and cam outcompete c3 at h20 stress
waht are tradeoffs
c4, cam more expensive and outcompeted by c3 at low moisture/temp
c4 and cam outcompete c3 at h20 stress
waht are tradeoffs
c4, cam more expensive and outcompeted by c3 at low moisture/temp
c4 and cam outcompete c3 at h20 stress
wahgt are the essentail macronutrients
N,P, K, S, Ca, Mg
wahgt are the essentail macronutrients
N,P, K, S, Ca, Mg
limiting nutrient
like rate limiting step
limiting nutrient
like rate limiting step
where does soil come from
where does soil come from
waht do young soils lack
nutrients bc added slowly over time
waht do young soils lack
nutrients bc added slowly over time
how are nutrients lost
erosion/ leaching
wahgt are the essentail macronutrients
N,P, K, S, Ca, Mg
how are nutrients lost
erosion/ leaching
wherre does leaching move material
from topsoil A horizon, available to plants, to lower layers B horizon unavailave to plants
wherre does leaching move material
from topsoil A horizon, available to plants, to lower layers B horizon unavailave to plants
waht are geographic differenees in nutrient limitation
temperatate areas- yopunger soil n limited
tropical zones- mostly older soils, more leached, more acidic, p limited
limiting nutrient
like rate limiting step
waht are geographic differenees in nutrient limitation
temperatate areas- yopunger soil n limited
tropical zones- mostly older soils, more leached, more acidic, p limited
where does soil come from
what fixes nitrogen that plants use
bactieria (rhizobia
what fixes nitrogen that plants use
bactieria (rhizobia
waht do young soils lack
nutrients bc added slowly over time
what are often first colonizers of soil
how are nutrients lost
erosion/ leaching
what are often first colonizers of soil
wherre does leaching move material
from topsoil A horizon, available to plants, to lower layers B horizon unavailave to plants
waht dolegumes add
waht are geographic differenees in nutrient limitation
temperatate areas- yopunger soil n limited
tropical zones- mostly older soils, more leached, more acidic, p limited
series ofplants arriving in new habitats which each changes environ inways that facilitate subsequenct colonists
what fixes nitrogen that plants use
bactieria (rhizobia
waht dolegumes add
what are most weedy platns specialiexed to
high n habitats
what are often first colonizers of soil
effects of n pollution
series ofplants arriving in new habitats which each changes environ inways that facilitate subsequenct colonists
what are most weedy platns specialiexed to
high n habitats
effects of n pollution
waht dolegumes add
series ofplants arriving in new habitats which each changes environ inways that facilitate subsequenct colonists
what are most weedy platns specialiexed to
high n habitats
effects of n pollution
why is so much farming in tropics shifting cultivation
little organic matter, nutrients quickly recycled, removal vegetation= rapid leaching, slash and burn- flush of nutrients rapidly depeleted
waht are the non tracheophytes
liverworts, hornworts and mosses
waht is key shared derived trait
waht are tracheids
true vascular tissue
what are non seed plants
club mosses, horsetails, ferns
diff btw gymnosperms and angiosperms
gymnosperms- dn have flowers
angiosperms- ahve flowers
what are 4 key adaptation of seed plants to land
vascular cambbium, heterospory, pollen, seeds
waht is vascular cambium
cyindrical tissue that consists predominantly of vertically elongating cells that freq divide which allows secondary growth
why is vascular cambium important
provides support for growing taller, additioanal transport to top
plants which bear a single type of spore
plants that have diff types of spores
waht do these develop into
2 diff kinds of gametangia
waht is megaspore
dev into female gametophyte (larger) poduces eggs
dev into microgametophyte (male) produces sperm
where aer megaspores produced
on megaspproangia
what does this allow
helps promote outbreeding- allows for evolution of pollen
waht are all seed plants
heterosporous and have tiny gametophytes
what does haploid gametophyte depend on in seed plants
diploid sporophyte
do seed plants have swimming sperm
what does independnce of seed plaants from swimming sperm nean
indep from h20
waht do megaspores dev into anytinhg
2 types of gametophytes
what is megaspore
dev into female gametophyte (larger)- produices egg
dev into microgametophyte (male) produces sperm
where are megaspores produced
what do microspores produce
pollen grain
a pollen grain is a
male gametophyte
what happens when pollen grain reaches approrpiate surface of sporophyte
slender pollen tube that elongates and gets to female
end product
what is good about sys
allows for longer distance transport of gametes not dep on h20
describe gametophyte of non seed plants
huge (n) and indep of sporophyte
in non seed plants what does fert embryo develop into
what doesall disperal occur thru
why is a seed a key adaptation
reduces risk of mortality to gametophyte stage allows for plants to spread risking time and space by providing protection for moving around and waiting for better
species of gymnospersm
cycads, gingkos, gnetophore,s, conifers
why are artrhropods so important
most abundant group of animals on earth (75% of all described species), 1st group of animals to invade land, key mutualistic and predator prey interaction w/plans
waht did animals have prob w.
water loss, support, locomotion, thermoreg
why thermoreg
bigger temp swings
what is bonus of going to land
waht are adv of exoskeleton
limits h20 loss, helps predator defense, support, locomotion
waht polysac makes exoskeleton
what are disadv to exoskeletons
cn get bigger, no 02, how can you move
how do they get around this
function of arthropod appendages
walking, swimming, gas exchange, food capture, manipulation, copulation and sensory perception
various body segments fuse together into more specialized segments
shrimp, lobsters, barnacles
beetles, butterflies, flies, bees, grasshoppers
describe complex dev process of insects
adults and hatchings dn look alke, major change btw spcies- metamorphosize
spiders, scorpions, ticks
why are arthropods so sucessful
exoskeleton/ molting, skeleton dn grow w/them, respiratory sys, open circ sys
how do deuterostomes differ from protosomestq
dev path
2 major gorups of deuterostomes
echinoderms and chrodates
internal skeleton, calficifed plates, larvae bilateral symmetry, adults radial symmetty
what did calcified plates lead to
dev of int skeleton
adv of bilateral sym
move better
characteristics of chordates
phryengeal slits, dorsal hollow nerve cord, ventral heart, tail that extends pass anus, notochord
where did amphibians rise from
waht is instinct
fizxed action patterns
what are fixed action patterms
highly stereotpyed, insensitive to experiences, elicited by single stimulus. dn stop until completed
are releases learned
learning takes place during short period of time early in dev
critical period
period of time when stuff can be learned
is all learning imprinting
describe why white crowned sparrows sing particular dialects
when white crowned sparrows are reared in isolation no species specific song will develop
wehen does the white crowned sparrow imprtin
as a juvenile but dn actually sing until adult bc song memory
what happens if a white crowned sparrow heard species specific song as nestling but then defeaned b4 could express it
dn sing bc has to hear himself sing
can you say tyhat a behavior is inherited
no, gene is codes for prot and may
waht are 3 approaches to seeing how a gene effects a behavior
hybridization, artifical selection and crossing of selected strains and molecular analysis of genes and gene prod
what was done to see if cricket songs were genetically determined
hybridizarion exp
what was doen in hybridization exp w/crickets
2 species of crickets were crossed- offspring expressed songs that had features of songs of both parents
females rxn to hybridization of men
hybrid females preferred hybrid male, pure female preferred pure male
how do migratory or wide ranging animals find their way
land marks, dist/ direction (compass) true navigationq
navigation by landmarks
ability of animal to return to nest
what do homing pigeons do
transported to remote sites and can find way home
how can sun serve as compass
if time of day is known
how can animals tell this
by circadian rhythm
waht have clock shifting experiments determiend
animals use circadian rhythms to determine directin from position of sun
waht did researchers do
placed pigeons in circular cage which enabled them to see sun and sky bu no other visual cues, trained birds to get food from one bin; circadian clocks phase shifted by others; then returend to normal cage w/sun; and looked for food in diff place;
how do animals orient themselves
by a time compensated solar compass
waht areother cues
plane of polarization of light and stars
when determining cost- benefit relationship, what do you look at
energetic cost- diff btw energy animal would hve expended had it rested and energy expended in performing behavior, risk cost- increased chance of beign injured or killed as result of performing behavior compared w/resting
opportunity cost- sum of benefits animal forfeits by not being able to perform other behaviors during same time interval
why are so many behaviors genetically determined
bc if no role model opportunities to learn not available no alternative to inhertied behavior, prob expends less energy
why do males court
sperm easy to produce, best for them is to do a lot
kin seleciton
by helping relatives indiv can incrasse rep of some of own allelse in pop
most indiv in grousp dn reproduce
why is eusociality favored
if establisment of new colonies is dangerous and difficult
study of distrubution of speces
biogeographic regions
large geographic areas sharing taxonomiclly similar organisms
major ecosystem types classifiied by vegetation
study of dist of species
biogeographic regions
local geographic areas that sharing taxonomoically similar organisms
major ecosys types classified by vegetation
one participant is harmed, other benefirst
one participant is harmed and no adv to other
gause's exclusion principle
if species use same set of resources, one will outcompete other
fundamental niche
range of resources that are potentially availabe to species
realized niche
range of resources that speccies actually availabe to use
keystone species
infleucnces community strucutre much more strongly than would predict based on biomass/abundance
indirect effect
one speices influences abundance of anoter even tho they are not directly
what is a community
group of species that lives and interacts in same area
are communties loose assemblages or superorganisms
loose assemblages
what is trophic dyn
energy flow thru communities
gross primary productivity
rate at which energy is incorporated int o bodies of photosyn organisms
net primary productivioty
gross primary production