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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
where are halogens located and describe their reactivness
-group 7A
-very reactive
-light is a form of this
-this is a type of energy that travels through space at a constant speed of 3.0 * 108m/s
electromagnetic radiation
what is wavelength
the distance between adjacent wave crests
for visible light wavelength determines what
color
a wavelength is measured in what
nanometer
what is frequency
the number of cycles or crests that pass through a stationary point in one second
the shorter the wavelength the higher the what
frequency
what is a photon
a particle of light
what is electromagnetic spectrum
includes all wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
what are gamma rays
waves that are produces by the sun, by stars, and by certain unstable atomic nuclei on earth
what is infrared light
the heat you feel when you place your hand near a hot object
what are UV rays
exposure to these waves increase the risk of skin cancer and cataracts and cause premature wrinkling of the skin
what are X rays
these waves pass through many substances that block visible light and are therefore used to image internal bones and organs
what is visible light
cause molecules in our eyes to rearrange and send a signal to our brains that result in vision
what are microwaves
these waves are used for radar and in microwave ovens to heat food
what are radio waves
these waves are used to transmit the signals used by television and other forms of communication
what is the emission spectrum
-a spectrum associated w/ the emission of electromagnetic radiation by elements or compounds
-light emitted by glowing hydrogen, helium, or neon can be separated into its constituent wavelengths by passing through a prism
what are ions
in chemical reactions atoms often loss or gain electrons to form these charged particles
negatively charged ions
anions
positively charged ions
cation
what is an isotope
atoms w/ the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
protons + neutrons=
mass number
what is atomic mass
represents the average mass of the atoms that compose the element
what is continuous mean & is the light in an emission spectrum continuous
-the light intensity is uninterrupted across the entire visible range
-no
explain the Bohr model
-electrons travel around the nucleus in circular orbits that are similar to planetary orbits around the sun
-the electrons orbit at specific, fixed distances from the nucleus
the energy of each orbit in the Bohr model is represented by what& name the symbol
-quantum number
-n
orbits farther from the nucleus have_____ energy than closer ones
more
what does it mean by excitation
whan an atom absorbs energy & moves to another orbit farther from the nucleus
what does it mean when an atom is relaxed
the atom is less stable & falls back to a lower energy level closer to the nucleus
what was the success of the Bohr model
it predicted the lines of the hydogen emission spectrum
what was the failure of the Bohr model
it failed to predict the emission spectra of other elements that contain more than one electron
because of it's failure the Bohr model was replaced by what
quantum mechanical model
explain the quantum mech. model
the orbit in this model show the distribution of electrons and where they are more likely to be found
who came up w/ the quantum mech. model
Erwin Schronder
in the Bohr model the energy levels are called ______and in the quantum model they are called ______?
-orbits
-orbitals
in the quantum mech. model the number that indicated the shell that an electron occupies is called what
principle quantum number
the higher the priciple quantum number the _______ the energy of the orbital.
higher
what specifies the shape of the orbital
subshell
name the subshells
s, p, d, & f
what does it mean by ground state
the lowest energy state
in the quantum mech. model shell n= 3 means that there are how many subshells
3
what is the law of constant composition
all samples of a given compound have the same proportions of their constituent elements
who came up w/ the law of constant composition
Joseph Proust
what is chemical formula
it indicates the elements present in the compound and the relative no of atoms of each
what are atomic elements
-those that exist in nature
-single atoms as their basis
what are molecular elements
-those that do not exist in nature
-2 atoms bonded together
what are molecular compounds
-formed from 2 or more nonmetals
ionic compounds must always contain what
positive & negative ions
what is meant by diatomic molecules
2 atoms of that element bonded together
what are ionic compounds
form from a metal & one or more nonmetals
formula unit is what
the smallest electrically neutral collection of ions
name the 7 elements that occur as diatomic molecules
-hydrogen
-nitrogen
-oxygen
-fluroine
-chlorine
-bromine
-iodine
what is a type 1 compound
compounds containing metals that always form cations w/ the same charge
what is a type 2 compound
compounds containing metals that can form cations w/ different chargers
what is a binary compound
those containing only 2 different elements
what is a polyatomic ion
ionic compounds that contain ions that are themselves composed of a group of atoms w/ an overall charge
what are acids
molecular compounds that dissolve in water to form H+ ions
what does aqueous mean
dissovled in water
what is eletron configuration
it tells how many electrons can be held in each orbital
electrons in the same orbital spin in _______ directions
opposite
orbitals in the same subshell have _______amount of energy
the same
what are valence electrons
electrons in the outmost principle shell
what are core electrons
electrons NOT in the outermost shell
the explanatory power of the quantum mech. model states what
the chemical properties of elements are largely determined by the number of valence electrons they contain
atomic size is determined by what
how far the outermost electrons are from the nucleus
why does going across the periodic table cause an decrease in atomic size
moving across the periodic table the number of protons are increasing which results in a greater pull on the electrons
why does going down the periodic table cause an increase in atomic size
the electrons that occupy the outermost orbital are farther from the nucleus as you move down the columns
what is ionization of energy
the energy required to remove an electron from the atom in the gaseous state
what does ionization energy decrease when moving down the periodic table
because the electron are farther from the nucleus and less tightly held
that is electromagetic radiation
light