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74 Cards in this Set

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0.000001 M_ =
0.001 k_
0.001 k_ =
1 _
1_ =
100 c_
100 c_=
1000 m_
1000 m_ =
1000000 M*_
2.54 cm=
1 in.
1 kg =
2.2 lbs
1 atm. =
760 mm Hg
Celsius from Fahrenheit
5/9(F-32)
From Celsius to Kelvins
C+ 273= K
Melting
changing from solid to liquid
Vaporization
changing from liquid to gas
Condensation
changing from gas to liquid
Freezing
changing from liquid to solid
Sublimination
changing from solid to gas; ie: dry ice
Deposition
changing from gas to solid; ie: snow
Charge of a proton and electron
+/- 1.602 x 10 to the -19
1 calorie of energy =
4.184 Joules
amplitude (A)=
how much the wave varies from the baseline
wavelength (lambda)=
1 full wave
frequency (nu)=
number of waves per second
To find wavelength
wavelength = speed of light constant/ frequency
To find frequency
frequency = constant/ wavelength
Electron Configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d10 4f14
Electronegativity
ability to attract electrons in chemical bond
NH4+
ammonium
OH-
hydroxide
ClO-
hypochlorite
NO3-
nitrate
HCO3-
bicarbonate
C2H3O2-
acetate
SO4 2-
sulfate
CO3 2-
carbonate
PO4 3-
phosphate
HBr
hydrobromic acid
HCl
hydrochloric acid
H2CO3
carbonic acid
Mole=
6.02 x10 to the 23
a mole of water=
18 mL
Finding Calorimetry
HH2O= m(ass of water) x c(specific heat) x (final temp.- initial temp.)
Boyle's Law
a sample of a gas at a constant temp. will have pressure and volume that are inversely proportional; P1V1= P2V2
Charles's Law
a sample of gas at a constant pressure the temp and volume are directly proportional; T1V2=T2V1
Avagadro
if we have equal volumes of gases at the same temp and same pressure they will have an equal number of particles; P1T1= P2T2
Ideal Gas Law
describes behavior of gases in terms of units; P(ressure)V(olume)=nR(constant)T(emp)
Condensation
process of losing energy so gases return to liquid state
Molarity
M= mole of solute/ L of solution
Molality
m= number of moles of solute/ kg of solvent
Molefractions
mf= moles of one component/ total moles of solution
Solvation
solvent particles surround solute particles
Solubility
ability to dissolve
Boiling Point Elevation
Change in boiling temp = Kb(constant of solvent) x molality (mole/kg)
Freezing Point Depression
change in freezing temp = Kf(constant) x molality (mole/kg)
To find equilibrium
Keq = [C]c[D]d/ [A]a[B]b
Reaction Quotient
if Q > Keq: shift to the left to make more reactions
if Q < Keq: shift to the right to make more products
if Q = Keq: equilibrium
Amphoteric
ability of water to be either an acid or a base
Acid
less than 7 on pH scale
Base
more than 7 on pH scale
How to find pH
pH= -log[H+]
How to find [H+] or [H3O+]
10 to the -pH
How to find [OH-]
[OH-][H+]= 10 to the -14
Ka=
[H+]
Kb=
[OH-]
pOH=
14-pH
Reaction rate=
change in concentration/ change in time
Rate of reactions
rate= k(constant)[A]x[B]y
x,y- relative number of moles
A,B- reactants that effect reaction rate
exothermic, + entropy
always spontaneous
exothermic, - entropy
spontaneous at low temps.
endothermic, + entropy
spontaneous at high temps.
endothermic, - entropy
never spontaneous
Endothermic
absorbs heat; ie: melting ice
Exothermic
gives off heat; combustion
Density
mass/volume
What are the generally soluble in water rules?
1. Alkali metals (IA) and ammonium ions
2. acetate ion
3. nitrate ion
4. halide ions (except AgX, Hg2X2, and PbX2)
5. sulfate ion (except SrSO4, BaSO4, and PbSo4)
Rules of insoluble in water
6. carbonate ion (except when matched with IA or NH4+)
7. chromate ion (except rule 1)
8. phosphate ion (rule 1)
9. sulfide ion (except CaS, SrS, BaS and rule 1)
10. hydroxide ion (except Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, and rule 1)