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### 74 Cards in this Set

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 0.000001 M_ = 0.001 k_ 0.001 k_ = 1 _ 1_ = 100 c_ 100 c_= 1000 m_ 1000 m_ = 1000000 M*_ 2.54 cm= 1 in. 1 kg = 2.2 lbs 1 atm. = 760 mm Hg Celsius from Fahrenheit 5/9(F-32) From Celsius to Kelvins C+ 273= K Melting changing from solid to liquid Vaporization changing from liquid to gas Condensation changing from gas to liquid Freezing changing from liquid to solid Sublimination changing from solid to gas; ie: dry ice Deposition changing from gas to solid; ie: snow Charge of a proton and electron +/- 1.602 x 10 to the -19 1 calorie of energy = 4.184 Joules amplitude (A)= how much the wave varies from the baseline wavelength (lambda)= 1 full wave frequency (nu)= number of waves per second To find wavelength wavelength = speed of light constant/ frequency To find frequency frequency = constant/ wavelength Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d10 4f14 Electronegativity ability to attract electrons in chemical bond NH4+ ammonium OH- hydroxide ClO- hypochlorite NO3- nitrate HCO3- bicarbonate C2H3O2- acetate SO4 2- sulfate CO3 2- carbonate PO4 3- phosphate HBr hydrobromic acid HCl hydrochloric acid H2CO3 carbonic acid Mole= 6.02 x10 to the 23 a mole of water= 18 mL Finding Calorimetry HH2O= m(ass of water) x c(specific heat) x (final temp.- initial temp.) Boyle's Law a sample of a gas at a constant temp. will have pressure and volume that are inversely proportional; P1V1= P2V2 Charles's Law a sample of gas at a constant pressure the temp and volume are directly proportional; T1V2=T2V1 Avagadro if we have equal volumes of gases at the same temp and same pressure they will have an equal number of particles; P1T1= P2T2 Ideal Gas Law describes behavior of gases in terms of units; P(ressure)V(olume)=nR(constant)T(emp) Condensation process of losing energy so gases return to liquid state Molarity M= mole of solute/ L of solution Molality m= number of moles of solute/ kg of solvent Molefractions mf= moles of one component/ total moles of solution Solvation solvent particles surround solute particles Solubility ability to dissolve Boiling Point Elevation Change in boiling temp = Kb(constant of solvent) x molality (mole/kg) Freezing Point Depression change in freezing temp = Kf(constant) x molality (mole/kg) To find equilibrium Keq = [C]c[D]d/ [A]a[B]b Reaction Quotient if Q > Keq: shift to the left to make more reactions if Q < Keq: shift to the right to make more products if Q = Keq: equilibrium Amphoteric ability of water to be either an acid or a base Acid less than 7 on pH scale Base more than 7 on pH scale How to find pH pH= -log[H+] How to find [H+] or [H3O+] 10 to the -pH How to find [OH-] [OH-][H+]= 10 to the -14 Ka= [H+] Kb= [OH-] pOH= 14-pH Reaction rate= change in concentration/ change in time Rate of reactions rate= k(constant)[A]x[B]y x,y- relative number of moles A,B- reactants that effect reaction rate exothermic, + entropy always spontaneous exothermic, - entropy spontaneous at low temps. endothermic, + entropy spontaneous at high temps. endothermic, - entropy never spontaneous Endothermic absorbs heat; ie: melting ice Exothermic gives off heat; combustion Density mass/volume What are the generally soluble in water rules? 1. Alkali metals (IA) and ammonium ions 2. acetate ion 3. nitrate ion 4. halide ions (except AgX, Hg2X2, and PbX2) 5. sulfate ion (except SrSO4, BaSO4, and PbSo4) Rules of insoluble in water 6. carbonate ion (except when matched with IA or NH4+) 7. chromate ion (except rule 1) 8. phosphate ion (rule 1) 9. sulfide ion (except CaS, SrS, BaS and rule 1) 10. hydroxide ion (except Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, and rule 1)