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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of the structure propertiesand reactions of matter
basic unit of matter
smallest paritcle of an elelment that still retains the properties of the element.
composed of three parts the protons neutrons adn electrons
particles with a negitive charge
very little mass
not considerd when calculating atomic mass
particles with a positive charge
paritcles with a neutral charge
electron cloud
the protons and neutrons make up the neucleous of the atom while the elcetrons make up the cloud. the electrons travel so quickly that you can not pin point any one electron at anyone time
atomic number
nimber of protons in a atom
mass number
the number of protons and neutrons in an atom. NUMBER OF NUETRONS EQUALS NUMBER OF ELECTRONS
periodic table
aranged acording to the atomic number. developed by demetri mendeleev also arranged vertically and horisontally.
valance electrons
electrons located on the outer shell of an atom.
an atom wants to have aight valance electrons in it s outer shell. THIS IS CALLED THE OCTET RULE usually happens to row one and two
have seven valance electrons wich makes them want to gain one electon which makes highly reactive
group of atoms that act as one unit. simpist atoms are made of two atoms and are called micro atoms. macro molicules are made up hundreds of thousands of atoms
a ion is when an atom gains or loses a valence electrons making the atom electrically charged.
are positivly charged atoms
negitivly charged atoms
process of gaining or losing electrons
only valance electrons are involved
ionic bonds
is created by force of attraction between the opposet charges of the ions in an ionic compound. occurs generally when a metal reacts with a non metal crystals form
two rules of ionic bounds
ions are formed as atoms gain or lose valance electrons
covalant bounds
occurs in valance group four are created by the atraction that forms between atoms when they share electrons
multiple bonds
more then 1 pair of electrons
double bounds = sharing of 2 pairs or four electrons. see notes for example. triple bounds share 3 pairs or 6 pairs of electrons
polor molicule
molicule with a slightly positve side and a slightly negitive side
the molicule is neutral though becouse the positive and negitive sides equal each other out result is unequal sharing
chemical formulas
a way of showing the number and kinds of atoms in a substance.
there are two types of formulas molecular and imperical.
molecular formulas
indacates the number and kind of atoms present in one molicule of a substance
number of atoms of each element is indicated by the subscript
empirical formulas
chmical formula for ionec compounds
for coupounds that fom between metal and nonmetal
emprical formula shows the smallest ratio of atoms for the compound
atomic theory
all elements are made up of particles called atoms
* atoms can not be created or destoyed atoms of the same element have the same sizes and mass/ same the opposet way
when a chemical change take place atoms are not detroyed but reaganged.
also known as synthisis
is the combo of two or more substances into one product see notes for examples.
a compound that breaks down into two or more substances
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// a little clue is that the poin of the arrow is always pointed at the product pp
despalcement (single)
if c is negitive you repalce the negitve with negitive if c is positve you replace it with positive SEE NOTES
two types of mixtures
homogeneos same throughout
hetrogeneous not the same throught
a homo includes a solvent and a solute
solvent that does the breaking down
solute are the ones that are broken down
solubility the amount of the salute a solvent can deslove there is a limit to how much every solvent can break down